Abstract: Temperature and oxygen are critical factors for aging of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar. Their effects on volatile flavor compounds were analysed. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were employed and the volatile flavor compounds in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegars were identified and quantitated under different temperature and oxygen conditions. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were then performed and the results were analyzed. 66 aromatic compounds were quantitated. The concentrations of many volatile flavor compounds changed evidentlywithextendedaging,especially that of the heterocyclic compounds. Compounds such as 5-(hydroxymethyl) furan-2-carbaldehyde, furfural, 3-hydroxy-2-butanone, 2,3-butanedione, and ethyl lactate, were considerably affected by temperature. Oxygen was found to significantly affect the concentrations of 2,3-butanedione, 2-methyl-1-propanal, 3-methylbutanal, benzaldehyde, 2-methylpropanoic acid, 3-methylbutanoic acid, furfural, isopentyl alcohol, and 3-(methylthio)-1-propanol. This study clarified the effects of temperature and oxygen on the volatile flavor compounds in Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar during aging, and found that temperature and oxygen had a synergistic effect on the formation of its flavor compounds.
简东振,周志磊,巩敏,等. 镇江香醋陈酿过程中温度和氧气对挥发性风味物质的影响[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(7): 75-82.
JIAN Dongzhen,ZHOU Zhilei,GONG Min,et al. Study on the effect of temperature and oxygen on volatile flavor compounds of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar during aging[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(7): 75-82.
JURADO J M,BALLESTEROS O, ALCÁZAR A,et al.Characterization of aniseed-flavoured spirit drinks by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and chemometrics[J].Talanta,2007,72(2):506-511.
CHINNICI F,DURAN GUERRERO E,SONNI F,et al.Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) characterization of volatile compounds in quality vinegars with protected european geographical Indication[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2009,57(11):4 784-4 792.
ZHOU Z,LIU S,KONG X,et al.Elucidation of the aroma compositions of Zhenjiang aromatic vinegar using comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-olfactometry[J].Journal of Chromatography A,2017,1 487:218-226.
WANG Z,LI T,LIU F,et al.Effects of ultrasonic treatment on the maturation of Zhenjiang vinegar[J].Ultrasonics Sonochemistry,2017,39:272-280.
ZHAO C,XIA T,DU P,et al.Chemical composition and antioxidant characteristic of traditional and industrial Zhenjiang aromatic vinegars during the aging process[J].Molecules,2018,23(11).
CHEN S,XU Y,QIAN M C.Aroma characterization of Chinese rice wine by gas chromatography-olfactometry, chemical quantitative analysis, and aroma reconstitution[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2013,61(47):11 295-11 302.
PERESTRELO R,SILVA CATARINA L,SILVA PEDRO,et al.Impact of storage time and temperature on volatomic signature of Tinta Negra wines by LLME/GC-ITMS[J].Food Research International,2018,109:99-111.
XIAO Z,ZHAO L,TIAN L.GC-FID determination of tetramethylpyrazine and acetoin in vinegars and quantifying the dependence of tetramethylpyrazine on acetoin and ammonium[J].Food Chemistry,2018,239:726-732.
CHEN S,WANG D,XU Y.Characterization of odor-active compounds in sweet-type Chinese rice wine by aroma extract dilution analysis with special emphasis on sotolon[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2013,61(40):9 712-9 718.
SCHOLTES C,NIZET S,COLLIN S.How sotolon can impart a madeira off-flavor to aged beers[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2015,63(11):2 886-2 892.
LANDAUD S,HELINCK S,BONNARME P.Formation of volatile sulfur compounds and metabolism of methionine and other sulfur compounds in fermented food[J].Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology,2008,77(6):1 191-1 205.