Abstract: A novel detection method to quickly judge the storage time and freshness of brown rice by analyzing the changes of flavor substances of brown rice was established. Gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (GC-IMS) was used to collect the volatile organic compounds of brown rice at different storage time. Dynamic principal component analysis (PCA) was used to reduce the dimensionality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) data and the processed data were applied to establish clustering analysis model by K-means algorithm. The results showed that the GC-IMS combination technique could effectively separate haploid and diploid of the VOCs in 8 groups of brown rice samples with different storage time and different packaging methods. Meanwhile, it could rapidly screen out 59 characteristic ion peaks with significant intensity changes and also discriminated the VOCs differences in different brown rice samples by two-dimensional data visualization. The clustering discriminant model constructed by data dimensionality reduction can classify brown rice samples into corresponding time clusters according to different storage time, which provides new ideas and methods for rapid identification of brown rice storage period and freshness.
王熠瑶,张烝彦,孙俊,等. 基于GC-IMS技术分析糙米储藏过程中风味物质变化[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(6): 250-255.
WANG Yiyao,ZHANG Zhengyan,SUN Jun,et al. Analysis of flavor changes of brown rice during storage based on gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(6): 250-255.
 ABUBAKAR B, YAKASAI H M, ZAWAWI N, et al. Compositional analy- ses of white, brown and germinated forms of popular Malaysian rice to offer insight into the growing diet-related diseases[J]. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis,2018,26(2):706-715.  PANG Y, AHMED S, XU Y, et al. Bound phenolic compounds and antioxidant properties of whole grain and bran of white, red and black rice[J]. Food Chemistry,2018,240:212-221.  TIAN S, NAKAMURA K, KAYAHARA H. Analysis of phenolic compounds in white rice, brown rice and germinated brown rice[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2004,52(15):4 808-4 813.  MILLER A, ENGEL A. Content of γ-oryzanol and composition of steryl ferulates in brown rice (Oryza sativa) of European origin[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2006,54(21):8 127-8 133.  LAI P, LI K Y, LU S, et al. Phytochemicals and antioxidants properties of solvents extracts from Japonica rice bran[J]. Food Chemistry, 2009,117(3):538-544.  乔琳.粳稻谷储藏期间品质指标及稻谷糙米大米中主要挥发性成分的研究[D].南京:南京财经大学,2016.  袁建,付强,高瑀珑,等.顶空固相微萃取-气质联用分析不同储藏条件下小麦粉挥发性成分变化[J].中国粮油学报, 2012,27(4):106-109.  姜雯翔,赵黎平,史晓媛,等.HS-SPME-GC-MS分析发芽糙米储藏过程中挥发性成分的变化[J].中国粮油学报,2013,28(10):123-128.  宋伟,张明,张婷筠.基于 GC/MS 的储藏粳稻谷挥发物质变化研究[J].中国粮油学报,2013,28(11):97-102.  陈鑫郁,贺金娜,陈通,等.气相色谱离子迁移谱联用技术在食用植物油品质检测中的应用[J].食品安全质量检测学报,2018,9(2):396-401.  陈通,谷航,陈明杰,等.基于气相离子迁移谱对葵花籽油精炼程度的检测[J].食品科学,2019,40(18):312-316.  BAUMBACH J I. Process analysis using ion mobility spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry. 2006,384(5):1 059-1 070.  ZHANG L X, SHUAI Q, LI P W, et al. Ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints: A rapid detection technology for adulteration of sesame oil[J]. Food Chemistry,2016,192:60-66.  PUTON J, NAMIESNIK J. Ion mobility spectrometry: Current status and application for chemical warfare agents detection[J]. Trac Trends in Analytical Chemistry,2016,85(Part B):10-20.  KAFLE G K, KHOT L R, SANKARAN S, et al. State of ion mobility spectrometry and applications in agriculture: A review[J]. Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food,2016,9(4):346-357.  GALLEGOS J, ARCE C, JORDANO R, et al. Target identification of volatile metabolites to allow the differentiation of lactic acid bacteria by gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry[J]. Food Chemistry,2017,220:362-370.  SCHWOLOW S, GERHARDT N, ROHN S, et al. Data fusion of GC-IMS data and FT-MIR spectra for the authentication of olive oils and honeys—is it worth to go the extra mile?[J] Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,2019,411(23):6 005-6 019.  TIAN L, ZENG Y, ZHENG X, et al. Detection of peanut oil adulteration mixed with rapeseed oil using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-Ion mobility spectrometry[J]. Food Analytical Methods,2019,12(10):2 282-2 292.  LIU A, SHEN L, ZENG Z, et al. A Minireview of the Methods for Listeria monocytogenes Detection[J]. Food Analytical Methods. 2018,11(1):215-223.  RODRíGUEZ-MAECKER R, VYHMEISTER E, MEISEN S, et al. Identification of terpenes and essential oils by means of static headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry[J]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,2017,409(28):6 595-6 603.  GERHARDT N, BIRKENMEIER M, SANDERS D, et al. Resolution-optimized headspace gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry (HS-GC-IMS) for non-targeted olive oil profiling[J]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry,2017,409(16):3 933-3 942.  WEHRENFENNIG C, SCHOTT M, GASCH T, et al. On-site airborne pheromone sensing[J]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2013,405(20):6 389-403.  郝春莉.气相离子迁移谱在食品风味分析中的应用[J].化学工程与装备,2015(10):204-205;144.  王辉,田寒友,李文采,等.基于顶空气相色谱-离子迁移谱技术的冷冻猪肉贮藏时间快速判别方法[J].食品科学, 2019,40(2):269-274.  谷航,陈通,陈明杰,等.气相-离子迁移谱联用技术评定大米霉变程度的应用研究[J].中国粮油学报,2019,34(9):118-124.  黄星奕,吴梦紫,马梅,等.采用气相色谱-离子迁移谱技术检测黄酒风味物质[J].现代食品科技,2019,35(9):271-276.