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Food and Fermentation Industries    2022, Vol. 48 Issue (20) : 130-136     DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030606
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Effects of roasting conditions on rheological properties and flavor of walnut fermented milk
FU Weiming1,2, JIAO Bo2, ZHANG Yu3, CHEN Yiying2, LI Sisheng2, LI Wei2, YANG Jie1*, WANG Qiang2*
1(College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, China)
2(Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affair, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100193, China)
3(Biotechnology Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China)
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Abstract  Roasting is an essential way to enhance flavor in food processing, herein, the effects of roasting on the gel strength and flavor of walnut fermented milk were studied. Walnut fermented milk was prepared from non-roasted walnuts or roasted walnuts at 60, 90, 120 or 150 ℃ for 15 min. The changes in rheology, texture, and color of fermented milk were investigated. At the same time, the composition and content of volatile flavor compounds were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that the fermented milk produced by roasted walnut at 90 ℃ for 15 min had the strongest gel structure. Its apparent viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus were significantly higher than those of other groups (P <0.05). Eighty-one volatile flavor compounds were identified in walnut fermented milk with different roasting conditions, including sixteen volatile flavor compounds with aroma activity value ≥1. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the volatile flavor compounds of walnut fermented milk were different from each other. When the roasting temperature was higher than 90 ℃, the increase of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans and pyrazines was helpful to improve the flavor. This study will provide a guidance for the determination of roasting conditions in the production of walnut fermented milk.
Keywords walnut fermented milk      roasting      rheological properties      volatile flavor compounds      principal component analysis     
Issue Date: 18 November 2022
URL:  
http://sf1970.cnif.cn/EN/10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030606     OR     http://sf1970.cnif.cn/EN/Y2022/V48/I20/130
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