Abstract: Compositions of phenolic substances in mustard greens and the impact of lactic acid fermentation on these substances have not been studied thoroughly. Therefore, phenolic compositions of the raw materials and finished products of traditional Hakka pickled mustard greens (Hakka sauerkraut) in Guangxi province were analyzed and compared by employing non-targeted metabolomics, high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, in combination with the principal component analysis, correlation analysis, and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Results showed that 136 phenolic substances were qualitatively detected in fresh mustard greens and Hakka sauerkraut, among which 119 (including 25 polyphenols, 34 phenolic acids, and 60 flavonoids) were found in mustard products for the first time, such as daidzein and equol. Fermentation changed the phenolic composition of mustard greens, after which the content of the following compounds significantly increased: seven phenolic acids including protocatechuic acid, nine flavonoids including quercetin, and dracorhodin. The contents of some compounds substantially decreased, such as salicylic acid and five flavonoids including quercetin-3-O-glucuronide. The comparative analysis based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database indicated that the differential phenolic metabolites involved seven metabolic pathways during the fermentation process. According to the non-targeted metabolome analysis, this research provides the first systematic report on the compositions of phenolic substances, while clarifying their differences in mustard greens and lactic acid fermentation products. Accordingly, a theoretical reference has been presented for the transformation mechanism of polyphenols during the lactic acid fermentation of vegetables.
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