Comparative analysis of volatile and principal aroma components ofcold-pressed oil from three varieties of late-maturing sweet oranges
LI Guijie1,2,3, ZHANG Qunlin1, HE Yajing1, TAN Anqun1, ZHANG Tenghui4, GUO Li1, ZHANG Wanchao2*, ZHONG Shijun5, TAN Xiang1, SUN Zhigao1*
1(Citrus Research Institute of Southwest University, National Citrus Engineering Research Center, Chongqing 400712, China) 2(Chongqing Institute of Medicinal Plant Cultivation, Chongqing 408435, China) 3(Chongqing Collaborative Innovation Center for Functional Food, Chongqing 400067, China) 4(Chengdu Centre Testing International Group Co., Ltd., Chengdu 610041, China) 5(School of Landscape Architecture and Life Sciences, Chongqing University of Arts and Sciences, Chongqing 402160, China)
Abstract: In order to develop the essential oil resources from major late-maturing sweet oranges cultivars in Chongqing, the volatile and principal aroma components of essential oil were studied for their composition and concentration characters. Techniques of headspace solid-phase micro-extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with odor activity values (OAV) were applied to analyze the cold-pressed oil (CPO) from Olinda Valencia Orange, Wuyuehong Orange and Late-maturing Blood Orange peel. The results showed that 53, 54 and 52 volatile components were respectively identified from the three varieties of CPO, among which D-limonene generally had comparatively low molar fraction. Olinda CPO contained higher concentration of hydroxyl (alcohols and phenols) and carbonyl (aldehydes and ketones) compounds while Wuyuehong and Late-maturing Blood Orange CPO contained higher concentrations of terpene volatiles. OAV analysis showed that 30 components including p-cymene, decanal, hexanal, nonanal and linalool were found as principal aroma contributors in the three CPOs. They form eight major aroma attributes such as citrusy, floral and lipid etc. Olinda CPO had higher OAVs of floral, lipid and sweet attributes while Late-maturing Blood Orange CPO had higher OAV of piney and woody attribute. In conclusion, the three local varieties of late-maturing sweet orange CPO exhibited varied characteristics. They are suitable for processing different types of low terpene essential oil, so as to enhance the added value of late-maturing sweet orange products.
李贵节,张群琳,何雅静,等. 三种晚熟甜橙冷磨精油挥发性及主体香气成分的比较分析[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(5): 284-291.
LI Guijie,ZHANG Qunlin,HE Yajing,et al. Comparative analysis of volatile and principal aroma components ofcold-pressed oil from three varieties of late-maturing sweet oranges[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(5): 284-291.
 IM S J, KIM J H, KIM M Y. Evaluation of bioactive components and antioxidant and anticancer properties of citrus wastes generated during bioethanol production[J]. Natural Product Communications, 2014, 9(4):483-486.  VAIO D C, GRAZIANI G, GASPARI A, et al. Essential oils content and antioxidant properties of peel ethanol extract in 18 lemon cultivars[J]. Scientia Horticulturae(Amsterdam), 2010, 126(1):50-55.  LI G, WANG G J, CHENG Y, et al. Prophylactic effects of polymethoxyflavone-rich orange peel oil on Nω-nitro-L-arginine-induced hypertensive rats[J]. Applied Sciences, 2018, 8(5):752-767.  杨蕾,洪林,李勋兰,等.重庆市柑桔产业发展现状及问题分析[J]. 中国果业信息, 2018, 35(11):13-16.  NJOROGE S M, KOAZE H, KARANJA P N, et al. Essential oil constituents of three varieties of Kenyan sweet oranges (Citrus sinensis)[J]. Flavour & Fragrance Journal, 2010, 20(1):80-85.  谢练武, 郭亚平, 周春山, 等. 压榨法与蒸馏法提取柑橘香精油的比较研究[J]. 化学与生物工程, 2005, 22(5):15-17.  SONG H, CADWALLADER K R, SINGH T K. Odor-active compounds of Jinhua ham[J]. Flavor & Fragrance Journal, 2005, 23(1):1-6.  BUTTERY R G, SEIFERT R M, GUADAGNI D G, et al. Characterization of additional volatile components of tomato[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 1971, 19(3):524-529.  洪鹏, 陈峰, 杨远帆, 等. 三种柚子精油的香味特征及挥发性成分[J]. 现代食品科技, 2014,30(10): 274-281.  MATTHEWS R F, BRADDOCK R J. Recovery and applications of essential oil from orange[J]. Food Technology, 1987, 41(1):57-61.  MOOKDASANIT J, HIROTOSHI T, TAKUMI Y, et al. Trace volatile components in essential oil of citrus sudachi by means of modified solvent extraction method [J]. Food Science and Technology Research, 2003,9(1): 54-61.  TAMURA H, FUKUDA Y, PADRAYUTTAWAT A. Characterization of citrus aroma quality by odor threshold values[J]. Biotechnology for Improved Foods and Flavors, 1996, 637:282-294.  Flavor database [DB/OL]. Florda State, USA: Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, 2002 [2012-12-7] http: //www.crec.ifas.ufl.edu/crec_websites/Rouseff/Website2002/Subpages/database_f_Frameset.html.  Flavor net and human odor space [DB/OL]. Geneva, NewYork, USA: Cornell University, 2004 [2012-12-07]. http://www.flavornet.org/flavornet.html.  杨颖, 施迎春, 陈剑兵, 等. 分子蒸馏精制对葡萄柚精油理化性质及赋香性能的影响[J]. 中国食品学报, 2013, 13(3): 208-213.  SAWAMURA M. Volatile components of essential oils of the citrus genus[J]. Recent Research Developments in Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 2000, 4(3-4):S32-S33.  MOSHONAS M G, SHAW P E. Compounds new to essential orange oil from fruit treated with abscission chemicals[J]. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 1978, 26(6):1 288-1 293.  ROJAS L, JENNIFER P I, PERE A, et al. Obtencion of essential oils and pectins from by-products of citrus juice[J]. Vitae -revista De La Facultad De Quimica Parmaceutica, 2009, 16(1): 110-115.  肖作兵, 马胜涛, 牛云蔚, 等. 感官评价和GC-MS结合偏最小二乘回归法分析甜橙油中的风味物质[J].中国食品学报, 2017, 17(7): 284-290.  乔宇. 柑橘汁香气活性化合物的鉴定及其在加工和储藏中的变化[D]. 武汉:华中农业大学, 2008.  CICCHETTI, ESMÉRALDA, DUROURE L, et al. Characterization of odoractive compounds in Timur (Zanthoxylum armatum DC.) fruits from Nepal [J]. Flavor and Fragrance Journal, 2017, 32(5):317-329.  牛云蔚, 姚征民, 肖作兵, 等. AEDA结合OAVs分析两种薰衣草精油中特征性香气成分[J]. 食品工业, 2016,37(12): 264-268.  CHOI H S. Character impact odorants of Citrus Hallabong [(C. unshiu Marcov × C. sinensis Osbeck)×C. reticulata Blanco] cold-pressed peel oil[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2003, 51(9):2 687-2 692.  SRIWICHAI T. Aromatic profiling of Zanthoxylum myriacanthum (makwhaen) essential oils from dried fruits using different initial drying techniques[J]. Industrial Crops and Products, 2019, 133:284-291.  GONZÁLEZ-MAS M C, RAMBLA J L, LÓPEZ-GRESA M P, et al. Volatile compounds in Citrus essential oils: A comprehensive review[J]. Frontiers in Plant Science, 2019, 10:1-12.  BUETTNER A, SCHIEBERLE P. Evaluation of aroma differences between hand-squeezed juices from Valencia Late and Navel Oranges by quantitation of key odorants and flavor reconstitution experiments[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2001, 49(5):2 387-2 394.  BAXTER I A, EASTON K, SCHNEEBELI K, et al. High pressure processing of Australian navel orange juices: Sensory analysis and volatile flavor profiling[J]. Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies, 2005, 6(4):372-387.  RODRÍGUEZ A, PERIS J E, REDONDO A, et al. Impact of D-limonene synthase up- or down-regulation on sweet orange fruit and juice odor perception[J]. Food Chemistry, 2017, 217:139-150.  PLOTTO A, CARLOS A, MARGARÍA, et al. Odour and flavour thresholds for key aroma components in an orange juice matrix: terpenes and aldehydes[J]. Flavour and Fragrance Journal, 2004, 19(6):491-498.  MACLEOD A J, MACLEOD G, SUBRAMANIAN G. Volatile aroma constituents of orange[J]. Phytochemistry, 1988, 27(7): 2 185-2 188.