Research progress of fat substitutes in baking industry
YAO Shuting1, ZHI Hui1,3, SHEN Xinyi1, LIU Donghong1,2, YE Xingqian1,2*
1(College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, China) 2(Fu Li Food Research Institute, Hangzhou 310058, China) 3(Harbin University of Commerce, Harbin 150128, China)
Abstract: Replacing the fat in baking products with fat substitutes can maintain the delicious diet itself and reduce the fat in food, which is beneficial to the health of consumers. So it has a broad market prospect. In order to provide more theoretical support for the application of fat substitutes in the baking industry, this article discussed the form of fat and its role in the texture and sensory qualities of the baking products. The characteristics and application of low-fat baking products at home and abroad were summarized and analyzed from three aspects: fat substitutes (olestra and salatrim), fat mimics (starch, modified starch, maltodextrin, polydextrose, gums, cellulose and protein) and complex fat substitutes. Finally, the development trend of fat substitutes in baking products was prospected.
 PAREYT B, DELCOUR J A. The role of wheat flour constituents, sugar, and fat in low moisture cereal based products: A review on sugar-snap cookies[J]. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2008, 48(9):824-839.  PAREYT B, TALHAOUI F, KERCKHOFS G, et al. The role of sugar and fat in sugar-snap cookies: Structural and textural properties[J]. Journal of Food Engineering, 2009, 90(3):400-408.  KAHYAOGLU T, KAYA S, KAYA A. Effects of fat reduction and curd dipping temperature on viscoelasticity, texture and appearance of Gaziantep cheese[J]. Food Science and Technology International, 2005, 11(3):191-198.  AKHTAR M, STENZEL J, MURRAY B S, et al. Factors affecting the perception of creaminess of oil-inwater emulsions[J]. Food Hydrocoll oids, 2005, 19(3):521-526.  DOYEN K, CAREY M, LINFORTH R S T, et al. Volatile release from an emulsion: headspace and in-mouth studies[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2001, 49(2):804-810.  DRAKE M A, MIRACLE R E, MCMAHON D J. Impact of fat reduction on flavor and flavor chemistry of cheddar cheeses[J]. Journal of Dairy Science, 2010, 93(11):5 069-5 081.  AKOH C C. Fat replacers[J]. Food Technology, 1998, 52(3):47-53.  HUNT R, ZORICH N L, THOMSON A B. Overview of olestra: A new fat substitute[J]. Canadian Journal of Gastroenterology, 1998, 12(3):193-197.  汤晓娟, 王凤, 贾春利, 等. 含Olestra低脂休闲蛋糕体系的流变学、微结构与烘焙特性[J].食品科学, 2013, 34(1):1-7.  豆玉静, 朱婧, 刘静, 等. 脂肪替代品蔗糖聚酯对蛋糕营养价值和感官可接受性的影响[J].食品工业科技, 2012, 33(18):315-317.  PIMDIT K, THERDTHAI N, JANGCHUD K. Effects of fat replacers on the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of puff pastry[J]. Kasetsart Journal-Natural Science, 2008, 42(4):739-746.  MA Z, BOYE J I. Advances in the design and production of reduced-fat and reduced-cholesterol salad dressing and mayonnaise: A review[J]. Food and Bioprocess Technology, 2013, 6(3):648-670.  PENG X, YAO Y. Carbohydrates as fat replacers[J]. Annual Review of Food Science & Technology, 2017, 8(1):331-351.  LINDEBOOM N, CHANG P R, TYLER R T. Analytical, biochemical and physicochemical aspects of starch granule size, with emphasis on small granule starches: A review[J]. Starch/stierke, 2004, 56(3-4):89-99.  SERINYEL G, ÖZTÜRK S. Investigation on potential utilization of native and modified starches contain resistant starch as fat replacer in bakery products[J]. Starch/Stärke, 2016, 69(3-4):1-9.  YOUNGTACK L, PULIGUNDLA P. Characteristics of reduced-fat muffins and cookies with native and modified rice starches[J]. Emirates Journal of Food & Agriculture, 2016, 28(5):1.  BAO J, BERGMAN C J, ELIASSON A C. The Functionality of Rice Starch[M]. England: Elsevier Inc.Food, 2004.  吴俊, 姜敬维, 李鹏. 微细化淀粉代脂研究及其在压缩饼干中的应用[J]. 食品科学, 2008, 29(4):203-205.  VAN HUNG P, MORITA N. Thermal and rheological properties of dough and bread as affected by various cross-linked cornstarch substitutions[J]. Starch/Säarke, 2005,57(11):540-546.  RODRIGUEZ-SANDOVAL E, PRASCA-SIERRA I, HERNANDEZ V. Effect of modified cassava starch as a fat replacer on the texture and quality characteristics of muffins[J]. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 2017, 11(4):1 630-1 639.  BALIC R, MILJKOVIC T, OZSISLI B, et al. Utilization of modified wheat and tapioca starches as fat replacements in bread formulation[J]. Journal of Food Processing & Preservation, 2017, 41(1):e12 888.  CHRONAKIS IS. Structural-functional and water-holding studies of biopolymers in low fat content spreads[J]. LWT- Food Science and Technology, 1997, 30(1):36-44.  SERIN S, SAYAR S, SERIN S, et al. The effect of the replacement of fat with carbohydrate-based fat replacers on the dough properties and quality of the baked pogaca: a traditional high-fat bakery product[J]. Food Science and Technology, 2016, 37(1):25-32.  CHYSIRICHOTE T, UTAIPATANACHEEP A, VARANYANOND W. Effect of reducing fat and using fat replacers in the crust of flaky Chinese pastry[J]. Kasetsart Journal-Natural Science, 2011, 45(1):120-127.  李冬霞, 许建生, 力杨, 等. 麦芽糊精替代苏式月饼皮中的猪油[J]. 食品科技, 2015,40(1):301-304.  MUDGIL D, BARAK S. Composition, properties and health benefits of indigestible carbohydrate polymers as dietary fiber: a review[J]. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2013, 61:1-6.  AGGARWAL D, SABIKHI L, SATHISH KUMAR M H. Formulation of reduced-calorie biscuits using artificial sweeteners and fat replacer with dairy-multigrain approach[J]. NFS Journal, 2016, 2(C):1-7.  KOCER D, HICSASMAZ Z, BAYINDIRLI A, et al. Bubble and pore formation of the high-ratio cake formulation with polydextrose as a sugar- and fat-replacer [J]. Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, 78(3):953-964.  ZOULIAS E I, OREOPOULOU V, TZIA C. Textural properties of low-fat cookies containing carbohydrate- or protein-based fat replacers[J]. Journal of Food Engineering, 2002, 55(4):337-342.  IZYDORCZYK M, CUI S W, WANG Q. Polysaccharide Gums: Structures, Functional Properties, and Applications[M]. America: Elservier Inc, 2005.  HU S M, LAI H S. Developing low-fat banana bread by using okra gum as a fat replacer[J]. Journal of Culinary Science & Technology, 2016, 15(1):36-42.  SALEHI F. Rheological and physical properties and quality of the new formulation of apple cake with wild sage seed gum (Salvia macrosiphon)[J]. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 2017, 11(4):2 006-2 012.  HAJMOHAMADI A, KERAMAT J, HOJJATOLESLAMY M, et al. Effect of tragacanth gum on texture and staling of commercial sponge cake[J]. Journal of Herbal Drugs, 2013,4(1): 39-42.  CHAVAN R S, KHEDKAR C D, BHATT S. Fat Replacer[M]. Holland: Elserier Inc, 2016.  朱峰, 陈景垚, 蓝蔚青. 菊粉的功能特性与开发利用研究进展[J]. 包装工程, 2019, 40(1):34-39.  蔡秋声. 脂肪替代品特性及其开发现状和前景[J]. 粮食与油脂, 1998(3):31-38.  LAGUNA L, PRIMO-MARTíN, CRISTINA, et al. HPMC and inulin as fat replacers in biscuits: Sensory and instrumental evaluation[J]. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 2014, 56(2):494-501.  OH I K, LEE S. Utilization of foam structured hydroxypropyl methylcellulose for oleogels and their application as a solid fat replacer in muffins[J]. Food Hydrocolloids, 2018, 77:796-802.  SANZ T, QUILES A, SALVADOR A, et al. Structural changes in biscuits made with cellulose emulsions as fat replacers[J]. Food Science and Technology International, 2017, 23(6):480-489.  张玉兰. 论纤维素对人体的功能[J]. 安徽农业科学, 2007, 35(11):3 351-3 351.  AKESOWAN A. Effect of a konjac flour / soy protein isolate mixture on reduced-fat, added water chiffon cakes[J]. Assumption Univ j technol, 2007, 11(1):23-27.  PIMDIT K, THERDTHAI N, JANGCHUD K. Effects of fat replacers on the physical, chemical and sensory characteristics of puff pastry[J]. Kasetsart Journal-Natural Science, 2008, 42(4):739-746.  CHUGH B, SINGH G, KUMBHAR B K. Studies on the optimization and stability of low-fat biscuit using carbohydrate-based fat replacers[J]. International Journal of Food Properties, 2015, 18(7):1 446-1 459.  MORIANO M E, CAPPA C, ALAMPRESE C. Reduced-fat soft-dough biscuits: multivariate effects of polydextrose and resistant starch on dough rheology and biscuit quality[J]. Journal of Cereal Science, 2018, 81:171-178.  FORKER A, ZAHN S, ROHM H. A combination of fat replacers enables the production of fat-reduced shortdough biscuits with high-sensory quality[J]. Food & Bioprocess Technology, 2012, 5(6):2 497-2 505.  NAMIR M, SULEIMAN A R, HASSANIEN M F R. Characterization and functionality of alcohol insoluble solids from tomato pomace as fat substitute in low fat cake[J]. Journal of Food Measurement & Characterization, 2015, 9(4):557-563.