Effect of milling degree on the appearance quality and physicochemical properties to the palatability of japonica rice
LI Ping1,2*, PU Shaorong1, LI Fengying3, ZUO Fangjun1, ZHANG Xin2,4, ZHAO Fei2,4, LIU Jian2,4
1(College of Basic Science, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China) 2(International Joint Research Center of Technology Innovation and Achievement Transformation on Palatability of Rice, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China) 3(Tianjin Jinlu Rice Industry Co., Ltd., Tianjin 301500, China) 4(College of Agronomy＆Resources and Environment, Tianjin Agricultural University, Tianjin 300384, China)
Abstract: Three japonica rice varieties (lines) were used for five different degrees of milling (DOM) treatment in order to determine the effect of milling on the appearance quality and physicochemical properties related to the palatability of japonica rice. The results showed that the increase in DOM resulted in the reduction of grain length and the length decreased significantly (P<0.05) when the DOM exceeded 13%. The effects of milling on the width, thickness and length/width ratio of short-bold grains were small. And when milling degree of 9%-10% could meet consumers' demand for rice whiteness and the broken rice rate of the three varieties (lines) increased when the milling degree exceeded 9%-10%. Moreover, the protein content and hardness of cooked rice decreased whereas the amylose content, the adhesion and the palatability value of cooked rice increased with an increase in DOM. From brown rice to 15% milling degree, the protein content of Jinyuan U99, Jinyuan 45 and Jingxiang 432 decreased by 15.9%, 14.6% and 20.4%, respectively. Furthermore, when the milling degree was 2%, the hardness of cooked rice decreased by 49.6%, 49.8% and 46.5% respectively, and after that, it fell slowly. DOM showed a significantly negative effect on grain length, protein content, hardness as well as hardness/adhesion of cooked rice(P＜0.01), however, with an increase in DOM, whiteness value, broken rice rate, amylose content, adhesion and palatability value of cooked rice were significantly increased (P＜0.01). DOM affected the physicochemical properties related to palatability, but existed varietal difference. It was suggested that the most suitable DOM for Jinyuan U99 and Jinyuan 45 was 9%, and for Jingxiang 432 it was 13%. Above treatment can ensure physicochemical properties related to palatability and meet consumers' needs for appearance quality.
李萍,普绍荣,李凤英,等. 碾磨度对粳稻外观品质和食味理化特性的影响[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2021, 47(4): 21-26.
LI Ping,PU Shaorong,LI Fengying,et al. Effect of milling degree on the appearance quality and physicochemical properties to the palatability of japonica rice[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2021, 47(4): 21-26.
 崔晶, 松江勇次, 楠谷彰人.优质食味米生产理论与技术[M].北京:中国农业出版社, 2019:2-3. CUI J, MATSUE Y, KUSUTANI A.Theory and Practice for Good Palatable Rice Production[M].Beijing:China Agriculture Press, 2019:2-3.  LEMESSA E B, SHIMELIS A E, YOHANNES T W.Influence of full fat rice bran from Ethiopian rice milling industries on nutritional qualities, physicochemical and sensory properties of bread and biscuits[J].Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization, 2020, 14(4):2 253-2 261.  MARIA I, FOTIS K, AGGELIKI M, et al.Stabilization of rice bran and its effect on bioactive compounds content, antioxidant activity and storage stability during infrared radiation heating[J].Journal of Cereal Science, 2018, 80:135-142.  BARIS TUNCEL N, YILMAZ N.Gamma-oryzanol content, phenolic acid profifiles and antioxidant activity of rice milling fractions[J].European Food Research and Technology, 2011, 233(4):577-585.  KALPANADEVI C, SINGH V, SUBRAMANIAN R.Impact of physicochemical properties on duration and head rice yield during abrasive and friction milling of rice[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 56(8):3 900-3 909.  吴娜娜, 马占倩, 谭斌, 等.不同加工精度稻米的营养物质含量、米粉特性及米饭品质研究进展[J].粮油食品科技,2019,27(6):40-45. WU N N, MA Z Q, TAN B, et al.Research progress of nutrient content, flour properties, cooking and sensory quality of rice with different milling degree[J].Science and Technology of Cereals, Oils and Foods, 2019, 27(6):40-45.  RUBRINDER S S, NARPINDER S, RSS K, et al.Optimization of process parameters for preparation of rice extrudates from short and long Indica rice cultivars milled to varying degree of milling[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 56(5):2 467-2 479.  BRENDA G L, ELAINE T C, BRYAN T V, et al.Effects of degree of milling, drying condition, and final moisture content on sensory texture of cooked rice[J].Cereal Chemistry, 1999, 76(1):56-62.  MENG X Y, JIA F G, XIAO Y W, et al.Effect of operating parameters on milling quality and energy consumption of brown rice[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2019, 56(2):674-682.  CHEN M H, BERGMAN C J.Influence of kernel maturity, milling degree, and milling quality on rice bran phytochemical concentrations[J].Cereal Chemistry, 2005, 82(1):4-8.  DEBABANDYA M, SATISH B.Effect of degree of milling on specifific energy consumption, optical measurements and cooking quality of rice[J].Journal of Food Engineering, 2007, 80(1):119-125.  THUNNOP L, SUTHAT S, JITRA K.Effect of milling on the color, nutritional properties, and antioxidant contents of glutinous black rice[J].Cereal Chemistry, 2013, 90(6):552-557.  UJJWOL S, ROMAN K, PRAVIN O, et al.Degree of milling effect on cold water rice quality[J].Journal of Nepal Agricultural Research Council, 2018, 4:7-17.  PROM-U-THAI C, SANCHAI C, RERKASEM B, et al.Effect of grain morphology on degree of milling and iron loss in rice[J].Cereal Chemistry, 2007, 84(4):384-388.  SEHUN C, HAN-SEOK S, KWANG R L, et al.Effect of milling and long-term storage on volatiles of black rice (Oryza sativa L.) determined by headspace solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry[J].Food Chemistry,2019, 276:572-582.  苏慧敏, 张敏, 苗菁, 等.不同加工程度大米食味变化分析[J].食品科学, 2016, 37(18):58-63. SU H M, ZHANG M, MIAO J, et al.Changes in rice taste with milling degree[J].Food Science, 2016, 37(18):58-63.  徐庆国. 稻米品质及测试方法研究—Ⅱ.碾磨精度对稻米品质性状的影响[J].作物研究, 1997(3):7-9. XU Q G.Research on rice quality and testing method—Ⅱ.Influence of milling precision on rice quality characters[J].Crop Research, 1997(3):7-9.  安红周, 陈会会, 薛义博, 等.不同碾磨时间对粳糙米加工特性的影响研究[J].食品科技, 2019, 44(8):169-173. AN H Z, CHEN H H, XU Y B, et al.Influences of milling time on processing characteristics of japonica brown rice[J].Food Science and Technology, 44(8):169-173.  KUMORO A C, LUKIWATI D R, PRASEPTIANGGA D, et al.Effect of drying and milling modes on the quality of white rice of an indonesian long grain rice cultivar[J].Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 2019, 18(2):195-203.  石吕, 张新月, 孙惠艳, 等.不同类型水稻品种稻米蛋白质含量与蒸煮食味品质的关系及后期氮肥的效应[J].中国水稻科学, 2019, 33(6):541-552. SHI L, ZHANG X Y, SUN H Y, et al.Relationship of grain protein content with cooking and eating quality as affected by nitrogen fertilizer at late growth stage for different types of rice varieties[J].Chinese Journal of Rice Science, 2019, 33(6):541-552.  CUI J, ZHANG X, CUI Z Q, et al.Correlation between evaluation of palatability by sensory test and physical properties in Chinese japonica-type rice[J].Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 2016, 61(1):53-58.  周丽慧, 刘巧泉, 顾铭洪.不同粒型稻米碾磨特性及蛋白质分布的比较[J].作物学报, 2009, 35(2):317-323. ZHOU L H, LIU Q Q, GU M H.Milling characteristics and distribution of seed storage proteins in rice with various grain shapes[J].Acta Agronomica Sinica, 2009, 35(2):317-323.  喻仲颖, 汤云龙, 汪楠, 等.不同碾磨条件对稻米主要品质的影响[J].食品科技, 2019, 44(5):166-169. YU Z Y, TANG Y L, WANG N, et al.Effect on main quality of rice under different milling condition[J].Food Science and Technology, 2019, 44(5):166-169.  林俊帆, 赵俐淇, 贾玉凤, 等.碾磨度对红米蒸煮、糊化特性、抗氧化活性及其米饭质构、感官品质的影响[J].食品工业科技, 2020, 41(8):250-255. LIN J F, ZHAO L Q, JIA Y F, et al.Effect of milling degree on cooking property, pasting property and antioxidant activity of red rice, texture and sensory properties of cooked red rice[J].Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2020, 41(8):250-255.  CUI J, ZHANG X, CUI Z Q, et al.Physical properties related to palatability of Chinese japonica-type rice[J].Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture Kyushu University, 2016, 61(1):59-63.  季宏波, 范艺凡, 林子木, 等.不同加工精度粳稻谷食味品质变化[J].粮食加工, 2020, 45(3):37-39. JI H B, FAN Y F, LIN Z M, et al.Changes in taste and quality of japonica rice with different processing accuracy[J].Grain Processing, 2020, 45(3):37-39.