Abstract: This article explored the effect of cooking time on the volatile flavors of braised pork,and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied to volatilize.Sexual flavor substances were separated and identified.The main flavor components were calculated by adding internal standard substances,and combined with odor activity value (OAV),the key flavor substances of braised pork in the cooking process were discussed.Studies have shown that 93 kinds of volatile flavor compounds have been identified in braised pork during the cooking process and cooking time had a significant effect on the volatile flavor compounds of braised pork.Flavor compounds such as hexanal and nonanal were cooked in braised pork for 90,120 and 150 min were the most important flavor substances.When cooking for 120 minutes,aldehydes,aliphatic hydrocarbons,and alcohols were contributed significantly to the flavor composition of braised pork.Furthermore,if cooked for 150 minutes,the content of hexanal reached 22.75 mg/kg,the content of nonanal reached 12.17 mg/kg,and the content of 2-pentylfuran was 7.60 mg/kg respectively.There were 9 kinds of braised pork with OAV value ≥1.According to the degree of flavor contribution,they were nonanal,methyl caproate,hexanal,2-heptenal,1-octen-3-ol,2-pentylfuran,trans-2-heptanone,2-pentanone,3-hydroxy-2-butanone.This research provides a certain theoretical basis for product development and control of braised pork.
朱文政,严顺阳,徐艳,等. 顶空固相微萃取-气质联用分析不同烹制时间红烧肉挥发性风味成分[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2021, 47(2): 247-253.
ZHU Wenzheng,YAN Shunyang,XU Yan,et al. Analysis of volatile flavor components of braised pork with different cooking time by SPME-GC-MS[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2021, 47(2): 247-253.
 SEO S H,KIM E M,KIM Y B.Preferences and consumption patterns of consumer to develop processed pork products for export[J].Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources,2012,32(1):18-23.  DOMINGUEZ R,GOMEZ M,FONSECA S,et al.Effect of different cooking methods on lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat[J].Meat Science,2014,97(2):223-230.  刘莉丹,黄峰,周芳伊,等.三种红烧肉挥发性风味成分的比较研究[J].食品工业科技,2019,40(13):141-147. LIU L D,HUANG F,ZHOU F Y,et al.Comparative study of three kinds of volatile flavor components of braised pork[J].Science and Technology of Food Industry,2019,40(13):141-147.  王瑞花,姜万舟,汪倩,等.红烧猪肉工艺优化及其挥发性风味成分的分离与鉴定[J].中国食品学报,2017(5):208-216. WANG R H,JIANG W Z,WANG Q,et al.Optimization of braised pork technology and separation and identification of volatile flavor components[J].Chinese Journal of Food Science,2017(5):208-216.  史笑娜,黄峰,张良,等.红烧肉加工过程中脂肪降解、氧化和挥发性风味物质的变化研究[J].现代食品科技,2017,33(3):257-265. SHI X N,HUANG F,ZHANG L,et al.Study on fat degradation,oxidation and changes of volatile flavor substances in braised pork processing[J].Modern Food Science and Technology,2017,33(3):257-265.  朱小玲.东坡肉的风味优化及成品的保鲜研究[D].扬州:扬州大学,2013. ZHU X L.Study on flavor optimization of Dongpo meat and preservation of finished products[D].Yangzhou:Yangzhou University,2013:21-23.  薛雁,周芳伊,黄峰,等.毛氏红烧肉特征风味成分分析[J].食品研究与开发,2019,40(11):153-158. XUE Y,ZHOU F Y,HUANG F,et al.Analysis of the characteristic flavor components of Mao′s braised pork[J].Food Research and Development,2019,40(11):153-158.  王瑞澄,周芳伊,黄峰,等.毛氏红烧肉挥发性风味物质分析方法的建立[J].食品科技,2019,44(4):308-313. WANG R C,ZHOU F Y,HUANG F,et al.Establishment of an analytical method for volatile flavor compounds of Mao′s braised pork[J].Food Science and Technology,2019,44(4):308-313.  刘登勇,曹振霞.红烧肉口腔加工过程中的香气释放规律[J].食品科学,2020,41(4):164-171. LIU D Y,CAO Z X.The aroma release law of braised pork during oral processing[J].Food Science,2020,41(4):164-171.  顾伟钢,张进杰,姚燕佳,等.红烧肉制作过程中脂肪氧化和脂肪酸组成的变化[J].食品科学,2011,32(17):76-80. GU W G,ZHANG J J,YAO Y J,et al.Fat oxidation and fatty acid composition changes during braised pork production[J].Food Science,2011,32(17):76-80.  BENET I,GUARDIA M D,IBANEZ C,et al.Analysis of SPME or SBSE extracted volatile compounds from cooked cured pork ham differing in intramuscular fat profiles[J].LWT - Food Science and Technology,2015,60(1):393-399.  ZHAO D,TANG J,DING X.Analysis of volatile components during potherb mustard (Brassica juncea Coss.) pickle fermentation using SPME-GC-MS[J].LWT - Food Science and Technology,2007,40(3):439-447.  刘登勇,周光宏,徐幸莲.确定食品关键风味化合物的一种新方法:“ROAV”法[J].食品科学,2008,29(7):370-374. LIU D Y,ZHOU G H,XU X L.A new method to determine the key flavor compounds of food:“ROAV” method[J].Food Science,2008,29(7):370-374.  刘登勇,赵志南,吴金城,等.基于SPME-GC-MS分析熏制材料对熏鸡腿挥发性风味物质的影响[J].食品科学,2019,40(24):220-227. LIU D Y,ZHAO Z N,WU J C,et al.Analysis of the effects of smoked materials on volatile flavor compounds of smoked chicken legs based on SPME-GC-MS[J].Food Science,2019,40(24):220-227.  里奥·范海默特.化合物香味阈值汇编[M].北京:科学出版社,2015:7. LEO V H.Compilation of Compound Fragrance Thresholds[M].Beijing:Science Press,2015:7.  毛永强,李彦虎,贠建民,等.传统陇西腊肉制作过程中挥发性风味物质变化分析[J/OL].食品与发酵工业,2020.https:// doi.org /10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.025248. MAO Y Q,LI Y H,YUN J M,et al.Analysis on the changes of volatile flavor compounds during the production of traditional Longxi bacon[J/OL].Food and Fermentation Industries,2020.https:// doi.org /10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.025248.  MOTTRAM D S.Flavour formation in meat and meat products:A review[J].Food Chemistry,1998,62(4):415-424.  朱文政,周晓燕.中式烹饪香味形成机理探析[J].中国调味品,2010,35(7):107-110. ZHU W Z,ZHOU X Y.Analysis on the formation mechanism of Chinese cooking aroma[J].Chinese Seasoning,2010,35(7):107-110.  YANG Y,ZHANG X,WANG Y,et al.Study on the volatile compounds generated from lipid oxidation of Chinese bacon (unsmoked) during processing[J].European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology,2017,119(10):1 600 512.  TIMON M L,CARRAPISO A I,JURADO A,et al.A study of thle aroma of fried bacon and fried pork loin[J].Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture,2004,84(8):825-831.  HOFMANN T,MUNCH P,SCHIEBERLE P.Quantitative model studies on the formation of aroma-active aldehydes and acids by Strecker-type reactions[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2000,48(2):434-440.  RUIZ J,GARCIA C,MURIEL E,et al.Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham[J].Meat Science,2002,61(4):347-354.  TANIMOTO S,KITABAYASHI K,FUKUSIMA C,et al.Effect of storage period before reheating on the volatile compound composition and lipid oxidation of steamed meat of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata[J].Fisheries Science,2015,81(6):1 145-1 155.  LORENZO J M,DOMINGUEZ R.Cooking losses,lipid oxidation and formation of volatile compounds in foal meat as affected by cooking procedure[J].Flavour and Fragrance Journal,2014,29(4):240-248.  MARIO E D,SONIA V,RAMOÄ N C.Analysis of volatiles in meat from iberian pigs and lean pigs after refrigeration and cooking by using SPME-GC-MS[J].Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2003,51:3 429-3 435.  AM D F,CORRADO D N,ARNALDO A.Self-organizing multisensor systems for odour classification:Internal categorization,adaptation and drift rejection[J].Elsevier,1994,18(1-3):244-258.  RUIZ J,VENTANAS J,CAVA R.New device for direct extraction of volatiles in solid samples using SPME[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2001,49(11):5 115-5 121.  纪有华,王荣兰.红烧肉风味形成途径探讨[J].扬州大学烹饪学报,2006(2):19-23. JI Y H,WANG R L.Discussion on the way to form the flavor of braised pork[J].Culinary Journal of Yangzhou University,2006(2):19-23.  蔡原,赵有璋,蒋玉梅,等.顶空固相微萃取-气-质联用检测合作猪肉挥发性风味成分[J].西北师范大学学报(自然科学版),2006,42(4):74-78;91. CAI Y,ZHAO Y Z,JIANG Y M,et al.Determination of volatile flavor components of hezuo pork by headspace solid phase microextraction-GC-MS[J].Journal of Northwest Normal University (Natural Science Edition),2006,42(4):74-78;91.  姚勇芳.肉类风味及其影响因素[J].肉类工业,2001(1):40-41. YAO Y F.Meat flavor and its influencing factors[J].Meat Industry,2001(1):40-41.  宋泽.炖煮牛肉风味研究及其形成机理初探[D].上海:上海应用技术大学,2019. SONG Z.Study on the flavor of stewed beef and its formation mechanism[D].Shanghai:Shanghai University of Applied Sciences,2019.  ALMELA E,MARTINEZ C,JORDAN M J.Ewe′s diet (pasture vs grain-based feed) affects volatile profile of cooked meat from light lamb[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2010,58(17):9 641-9 646.  SONG Y Q,FAN L,XU X D,et al.Aroma patterns characterization of braised pork obtained from a novel ingredient by sensory-guided analysis and gas-chromatography-olfactometry[J].Foods (Basel,Switzerland),2019,8(3):87.