Flavor compounds in Ning black tea by QDA and GC-MS combined with PLSR
YUE Cuinan1,2, QIN Dandan3, CAI Hailan1,2, LI Chen1,2, WANG Zhihui1,2, LI Wenjin1,2, YANG Puxiang1,2*, WU Hualing3*
1(Jiangxi Sericulture and Tea Research Institute,Nanchang 330202,China) 2(Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Tea Quality and Safety Control,Nanchang 330202,China) 3(Tea Research Institute,Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Science,Guangzhou 510640,China)
Abstract: To explore the sensory characteristics, volatile compounds composition and molecular sensory basis of Ning black tea.In this study, QDA combined with HS-SPME-GC-MS was used to analyze the aroma characteristics and volatile compounds of eight typical Ning black tea samples, and then PLSR was used to screen the volatile components which had an important contribution to the aroma characteristics.The results showed that the aroma of Ning black tea could be characterized by eight aroma terms and their definitions.The aroma characteristics of Ning black tea were mainly fruity, supplemented by sweet-smell and floral.Among them, the correlation between floral and sweet-smell was large, the correlation between roasted and fruity was large, and the correlation between spicy and freshly was large.Seventy five common volatile components were identified, among which alcohols were the highest, followed by esters, acids, aldehydes and ketones.The differences in volatile components among Ning black tea samples were significant.Finally, sixteen compounds which contributed significantly to the aroma characteristics of Ningblack tea were identified, namely, trans nerolidol, phenylethanol, benzaldehyde, linalool, α-ionone, β-carvone, ocimene, β-ionone, nerol, ethyl palmitate, 3-furfural, benzyl alcohol, hexanoic acid, trans-3-hexenoic acid and methyl salicylate.This experiment provides a basis for further study on aroma precursor, biochemical process and quality control of Ning black tea.
岳翠男,秦丹丹,蔡海兰,等. QDA和GC-MS结合PLSR分析宁红茶中的风味物质[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2021, 47(7): 225-231.
YUE Cuinan,QIN Dandan,CAI Hailan,et al. Flavor compounds in Ning black tea by QDA and GC-MS combined with PLSR[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2021, 47(7): 225-231.
吴东生,朱修南.万里茶道上的宁红茶[J].中国茶叶,2016,38(9):35-36.WU D S, ZHU X N.Ning black tea on the ten thousand kilometer tea ceremony[J].China Tea,2016,38(9):35-36.
胡琳菁. 红茶始祖修水宁红,扬千年历史[J].江西农业,2015(3):31-32.HU L J.The ancestor of black tea,Xiushui Ning black tea,has a history of thousands of years[J].Jiangxi Agriculture,2015(3):31-32.
FENG Z H,LI Y F,LI M,et al.Tea aroma formation from six model manufacturing processes[J].Food Chemistry,2019,285:347-354.
HU C J,LI D,MA Y X,et al.Formation mechanism of the oolong tea characteristic aroma during bruising and withering treatment[J].Food Chemistry,2018,269:202-211.
OLIVER P,CICERALE S,PANG E,et al.A comparison of temporal dominance of sensation (TDS) and quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) to identify flavors in strawberries[J].Journal of Food Science,2018,83(4):1 094-1 102.
JUÁREZ-BARRIENTOS J M,DE MONTSERRAT TEJEDA-PAZ M, DE JESÚS RAMÍREZ-RIVERA E,et al.Use of quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) coupled with multivariate statistical methods to detection and discrimination of adulterated fresh cheeses[J].Journal of Sensory Studies,2019,34(1):e12479.
FENG Z H,LI M,LI Y F,et al.Characterization of the orchid-like aroma contributors in selected premium tea leaves[J].Food Research International,2020,129:108 841.
ZHU Y,LV H P,SHAO C Y,et al.Identification of key odorants responsible for chestnut-like aroma quality of green teas[J].Food Research International,2018,108(5):74-82.
MAO S H,LU C Q,LI M F,et al.Identification of key aromatic compounds in Congou black tea by partial least-square regression with variable importance of projection scores and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/gas chromatography-olfactometry[J].Journal of the Science of Food & Agriculture,2018,98(14):5 278-5 286.
ZHU Y,LV H P,DAI W D,et al.Separation of aroma components in Xihu Longjing tea using simultaneous distillation extraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry[J].Separation and Purification Technology,2016,164(30):146-154.
KANG S,YAN H,ZHU Y,et al.Identification and quantification of key odorants in the world’s four most famous black teas[J].Food Research International,2019,121:73-83.
WANG C,ZHANG C,KONG Y,et al.A comparative study of volatile components in Dianhong teas from fresh leaves of four tea cultivars by using chromatography-mass spectrometry,multivariate data analysis,and descriptive sensory analysis[J].Food Research International,2017,100(pt 1):267-275.
WANG C,LV S D,WU Y S,et al.Oolong tea made from tea plants from different locations in Yunnan and Fujian,China showed similar aroma but different taste characteristics[J].Springer Plus,2016.DOI:10.1186/s40 064-016-2229-y.
李小嫄. 工夫红茶风味感官品质与化学品质研究[D].重庆:西南大学,2015.LI X Y.Relationship between sensory character and chemical components of Congou’s flavor[D].Chongqing:Southwest University,2015.
毛世红. 基于风味组学的工夫红茶品质分析与控制研究[D].重庆:西南大学,2018.MAO S H.Quality analysis and control of Congou black tea based on sensomics[D].Chongqing:Southwest University,2018.
GRAY D,GENT L J.Prediction of the coefficient of variation of carrot embryo length from a germination test[J].Annals of Applied Biology,2010,112(1):235-237.
马庆华,李永红,梁丽松,等.冬枣优良单株综合评价体系的建立[J].农业系统科学与综合研究,2011,27(3):321-327.MA Q H,LI Y H,LIANG L S,et al.Establishment of the synthetical evaluation system for Dongzao (Zizyphus jujuba Mill.‘Dongzao’) advanced selections[J].System Sciences and Comprehensive Studies in Agriculture,2011,27(3):321-327.
王秋霜, 陈栋,许勇泉,等.中国名优红茶香气成分的比较研究[J].中国食品学报,2013,13(1):195-200.WANG Q S,CHEN D,XU Y Q,et al.Study on the aroma components in Chinese famous black tea[J].Journal of Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology,2013,13(1):195-200.
罗学平, 李丽霞,马超龙,等.四川主栽茶树品种红茶香气成分的SPME-GC-MS分析[J].食品科学,2016,37(16):173-178.LUO X P,LI L X,MA C L,et al.SPME-GC-MS analysis of aroma components in black tea prepared with main tea cultivars in Sichuan[J].Food Science,2016,37(16):173-178.
雷攀,黄建琴,丁勇,等.不同区域祁门红茶品质特点分析[J].食品科学,2015,36(10):144-149.LEI P,HUANG J Q,DING Y,et al.Quality characteristics of Keemun black tea from various regions[J].Food Science,2015,36(10):144-149.
宛晓春. 茶叶生物化学[M].第3版.北京:中国农业出版社,2003.WAN X C.Biochemistry of tea[M].3th ed.Beijing:China Agricultural Press,2003.
CHEN X H,CHEN D J,JIANG H,et al.Aroma characterization of Hanzhong black tea (Camellia sinensis) using solid phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and olfactometry and sensory analysis[J].Food Chemistry,2018,274:130-136.
JOSHI R,GULATI A.Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea[J].Food Chemistry,2015,167:290-298.
马雪平, 詹萍,田洪磊,等.基于GC-MS、DSA结合PLSR研究羊脂处理方式对热反应体系风味形成的影响[J].食品科学,2020,41(8):194-201.MA X P,ZHAN P,TIAN H L,et al.Effects of mutton tallow subjected to different treatments on aroma compounds generated from thermal reaction systems as evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry,descriptive sensory analysis and partial least squares regression[J].Food Science,2020,41(8):194-201.
WANG Z Y,HAN B S,JING W F,et al.Effects of different steeping temperatures on the leaching of aroma components in black tea by SPME-GC-MS coupled with chemometric method[J].Journal of AOAC International,2019,102(6):1 834-1 844.
曾亮, 王杰,柳岩,等.小种红茶与工夫红茶品质特性的比较分析[J].食品科学,2016,37(20):51-56.ZENG L,WANG J,LIU Y,et al.Comparative analysis of quality characteristics of Souchong and Congou[J].Food Science,2016,37(20):51-56.
SCHUH C,SCHIEBERLE P.Characterization of the key aroma compounds in the beverage prepared from Darjeeling black tea:Quantitative differences between tea leaves and infusion[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2006,54(3):916-924.