Antioxidant activity and synergistic effect of astaxanthin and β-carotene
ZHANG Tao1, DENG Si1, CHEN Yanhong1,2,3,4*, DU Xiping1,2,3,4
1(College of Food and Biological Engineering,Jimei University,Xiamen,361021,China) 2(Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Food Microbiology and Enzyme Engineering,Xiamen,361021,China) 3(Research Center of Food Biotechnology of Xiamen City,Xiamen,361021,China) 4(Key Laboratory of Systemic Utilization and In-depth Processing of Economic Seaweed, Southern Ocean Technology Center of China,Xiamen,361021,China)
Abstract: Based on the analysis of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical (DPPH), 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) free radical (ABTS), hydroxyl free radical (·OH) clearance, iron ion reduction ability, anti-oil peroxidation ability and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), the antioxidation abilities of astaxanthin and β-carotene were studied. In addition, DPPH, ABTS, ·OH clearance were used as indexes to evaluate the antioxidation abilities of the synergistic effect of astaxanthin and β-carotene. The results showed that astaxanthin and β-carotene had antioxidant activities in the six antioxidant experiments, and the antioxidant activities of astaxanthin were stronger than that of β-carotene. The concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) values of astaxanthin on DPPH, ABTS and ·OH radicals were (29.95 ± 3.01), (61.21 ± 4.17) and (26.12 ± 5.14) μg/mL, respectively. The combination of astaxanthin and β-carotene demonstrated synergy on DPPH·, ABTS+·, ·OH radical scavenging capacities, however, a high concentration of astaxanthin combined with β-carotene was not conducive to the production of radical scavenging capacity synergy. The study provides a theoretical basis for the development of efficient antioxidants from P. rhodozyma.
 逯阳. 几种植物多酚捕获体内自由基反应机理的理论研究[D].哈尔滨:哈尔滨理工大学,2017. LU Y.A theoretical study on the reaction mechanisms of several plant polyphenols scavenging radicals in vivo[D].Harbin:Harbin University of Science and Technology,2017.  PALANISWAMY R,PADMA P R.Free radical scavenging activity of Majorana hortensis leaves[J].Ancient Science of Life,2011,30(4):96-99.  翁雪梅, 李思惠.化学危害因素引起的疾病与自由基关系研究进展[J].职业卫生与应急救援,2009,27(2):77-79. WENG X M,LI S H.Free radical and diseases caused by chemical hazards[J].Occupational Health and Emergency Rescue,2009,27(2):77-79.  韩静静, 田丹丹,高玉星,等.生育酚及其衍生物保护自由基诱导的生物大分子损伤和抑制HepG2细胞增殖的作用[J].食品科学,2018,39(13):144-152. HAN J J,TIAN D D,GAO Y X,et al.Tocopheryl and derivatives protect against free radical-induced damage to biological macromolecules and inhibit the proliferation of HepG2 cells[J].Food Science,2018,39(13):144-152.  高岩, 邢丽红,孙伟红,等.不同来源虾青素提取、纯化及定量检测方法的研究进展[J].食品安全质量检测学报,2020,11(5):1 414-1 423. GAO Y,XING L H,SUN W H,et al.Research progress on extraction,purification and quantitative detection methods of astaxanthin from different sources[J].Journal of Food Safety and Quality,2020,11(5):1 414-1 423.  张广伦, 肖正春,张锋伦,等.雨生红球藻中虾青素的研究与应用[J].中国野生植物资源,2019,38(2):72-77. ZHANG G L,XIAO Z C,ZHANG F L,et al.Study and application of astaxanthin in Haematococcus pluvialis[J].Chinese Wild Plant Resources,2019,38(2):72-77.  VISSER H,VANOOYEN A J J,VERDOES J C.Metabolic engineering of the astaxanthin-biosynthetic pathway of Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous[J].FEMS Yeast Research,2003,4(3):221-231.  HUSSEIN G,SANKAWA U,GOTO H,et al.Astaxanthin,a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition[J].Journal of Natural Products,2006,69(3):443-449.  DU X P,DONG C C,WANG K,et al.Separation and purification of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma by preparative high-speed counter-current chromatography[J].Journal of Chromatography B,2016,1 029-1 030:191-197.  HORMOZI M,GHOREISHI S,BAHARVAND P.Astaxanthin induces apoptosis and increases activity of antioxidant enzymes in LS-180 cells[J].Artificial Cells,Nanomedicine,and Biotechnology,2019,47(1):891-895.  KUMAR S,SINGH S V.Influence of astaxanthin supplementation on attainment of puberty and lipid peroxidation in Sahiwal and Karan Fries (Holstein × Tharparkar) heifers during summer season[J].Biological Rhythm Research,2020,51(1):15-28.  LI J J,GUO C Y,WU J Y.Astaxanthin in liver health and disease:A potential therapeutic agent[J].Drug Design,Development and Therapy,2020,14:2 275-2 285.  ALIDADI M,JAMIALAHMADI T,CICERO A F G,et al.The potential role of plant-derived natural products in improving arterial stiffness:A review of dietary intervention studies[J].Trends in Food Science & Technology,2020,99:426-440.  MISAWA N,SHIMADA H.Metabolic engineering for the production of carotenoids in non-carotenogenic bacteria and yeasts[J].Journal of Biotechnology,1998,59(3):169-181.  OJIMA K,BREITENBACH J,VISSER H,et al.Cloning of the astaxanthin synthase gene from Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma) and its assignment as a β-carotene 3-hydroxylase/4-ketolase[J].Molecular Genetics & Genomics,2006,275(2):148-158.  VERDOES J C,SANDMANN G,VISSER H,et al.Metabolic engineering of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in the yeast Xanthophyllomyces dendrorhous (Phaffia rhodozyma)[J].Applied and Environmental Microbiology,2003,69(7):3 728-3 738.  王春, 杜希萍,姜泽东,等.法夫酵母虾青素高效液相色谱分析前处理方法改进研究[J].分析科学学报,2018,34(3):352-356. WANG C,DU X P,JIANG Z D,et al.Improving the sample preparation for high performance liquid chromatography determination of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma[J].Journal of Analytical Science,2018,34(3):352-356.  SOWMYA R,SACHINDRA N M.Evaluation of antioxidant activity of carotenoid extract from shrimp processing byproducts by in vitro assays and in membrane model system[J].Food Chemistry,2012,134(1):308-314.  张乃珣,尹红力,刘冉,等.茶黄素与真菌多糖联合清除ABTS自由基活性的比较[J].现代食品科技,2017,33(2):21-28;34. ZHANG N X,YIN H L,LIU R,et al.ABTS radical scavenging activity of theaflavins combined with fungal polysaccharides[J].Modern Food Science and Technology,2017,33(2):21-28;34.  VANIA U O,JOSELINA H O,ELIZABETH C M,et al.Component analysis and free radicals scavenging activity of Cicer arietinum L.husk pectin[J].Molecules,2010,15(10):6 948-6 955.  BENZIE I F F,STRAIN J J.The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of “antioxidant power”:The FRAP assay[J].Analytical Biochemistry,1996,239(1):70-76.  徐维盛, 李东,刘静,等.ORAC法对12种水果总抗氧化能力评价研究[J].食品工业,2014,35(1):247-250. XU W S,LI D,LIU J,et al.Study on antioxidant activities of 12 kinds of fruit[J].The Food Industry,2014,35(1):247-250.  尹文娟. 载虾青素海藻酸钙微球的制备及性能研究[D].大连:大连理工大学,2016. YI L J.Preparation and properties of astaxanthin-loaded calcium alginate microparticles[D].Dalian:Dalian University of Technology,2016.  钟先锋, 张继如,黄建锋,等.法夫酵母虾青素对油脂氧化稳定性的影响[J].粮油食品科技,2015,23(2):31-34. ZHONG X F,ZHANG J R,HUANG J F,et al.Effects of astaxanthin from Phaffia rhodozyma on the oxidative stability of oil[J].Science and Technology of Cereals,Oils and Foods,2015,23(2):31-34.  LIU X B,OSAWA T.Cis astaxanthin and especially 9-cis astaxanthin exhibits a higher antioxidant activity in vitro compared to the all-trans isomer[J].Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications,2007,357(1):187-193.  钟雨彤. 虾青素的生理功能与应用领域[J].科技展望,2016,26(23):290. ZHONG Y T.Physiological function and application of astaxanthin[J].Outlook of Science and Technology,2016,26(23):290.  GOTO S,KOGURE K,ABE K,et al.Efficient radical trapping at the surface and inside the phospholipid membrane is responsible for highly potent antiperoxidative activity of the carotenoid astaxanthin[J].Biochimica et Biophysica Acta(BBA)-Biomembranes,2001,1 512(2):251-258.  TERAO J.Antioxidant activity of β-carotene-related carotenoids in solution[J].Lipids,1989,24(7):659-661.  LIM B P,NAGAO A,TERAO J,et al.Antioxidant activity of xanthophylls on peroxyl radical-mediated phospholipid peroxidation[J].Biochimica et Biophysica Acta,1992,1 126(2):178-184.  LIANG R,HAN R M,FU L M,et al.Baicalin in radical scavenging and its synergistic effect with β-Carotene in antilipoxidation[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2009,57(15):7 118-7 124.  HAN R M,TIAN Y X,BECKER E M,et al.Puerarin and conjugate bases as radical scavengers and antioxidants:Molecular mechanism and synergism with β-Carotene[J].Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry,2007,55(6):2 384-2 391.  LIANG J,TIAN Y X,YANG F,et al.Antioxidant synergism between carotenoids in membranes.Astaxanthin as a radical transfer bridge[J].Food Chemistry,2009,115(4):1 437-1 442.  许飒, 李忠,张声华.类胡萝卜素与VC的协同抗氧化性研究[J].食品科学,1999,20(2):22-26. XU S,LI Z,ZHANG S H.Study of the synergistic antioxidative activities of carotenoids and VC[J].Food Science,1999,20(2):22-26.  丁健, 徐娟,张红艳.丙酮体系中柑橘皮中类胡萝卜素与VC及VE的协同抗氧化性研究[J].生物技术,2004,14(6):30-32. DING J,XU J,ZHANG H Y.Study of the synergistic antioxidative activities of citrus peel carotenoids and VC or VE in acetone solution[J].Biotechnology,2004,14(6):30-32.  CHOE E,MIN D B.Mechanisms of antioxidants in the oxidation of foods[J].Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety,2009,8(4):345-358.