Abstract: The technology of whole-barley beer brewing avoids the problem of high-water and high-heat consumption in traditional malting process, which meets the requirements of green production. However, the starch molecules of un-malted barley are regularly arranged leading them hard to be enzymatically decomposed. Thus, it is necessary to adopt a proper pretreatment. In this study, the pretreatment of enzymatically extruded whole-barley (EEWB) was used to thermally modify barley flour in comparison with two traditional heat pretreatments, steam cooking and high-pressure cooking. The results showed that the enzymatic extrusion destroyed the granular structure of starch, leading to a large number of pores appearing on the surface. The water solubility was significantly enhanced, and gelatinization degree reached up to 98.52%. Differential scanning calorimeter showed no change in enthalpy. Approximate 70% of the starch was degraded into oligosaccharides and dextrin. The peak viscosity of EEWB was extremely lower than that of original barley flour (only 1/24). The gelatinization and degradation degree of EEWB were better than those treated by steam cooking and high-pressure cooking. The carbon and nitrogen sources in EEWB materials met the needs of yeast growth, and the alcohol content of finished beer reached to 4.90%. Overall, the pretreatment of EEWB was beneficial to extend the market of whole-barley beer.
CAPECE A,ROMANIELLO R,PIETRAFESA A,et al.Use of Saccharomyces cerevisiae var.boulardii in co-fermentations with S.cerevisiae for the production of craft beers with potential healthy value-added[J].International Journal of Food Microbiology,2018,284:22-30.
梁君业(Brennan Leong).论影响中国啤酒产业发展的因素及未来趋势[D].南京:南京大学,2017.LEONG B.Forecasting the future trends of the beer industry in China:Agame theory analysis of competitive strategy[D].Nanjing:Nanjing University,2017.
张辰东. 江苏啤酒大麦麦芽麦汁中混浊物质的初步研究[D].无锡:江南大学,2014.ZHANG C D.Study on wort turbid substances of Jiangsu barley malt[D].Wuxi:Jiangnan University,2014.
赵雅. 制麦与酿造工艺对麦芽及啤酒抗氧化性的影响[D].扬州:扬州大学,2012.ZHAO Y.The influence of malting and brewing technology on the antioxidation of malt and beer[D].Yangzhou:Yangzhou University,2012.
王秀丽,王家林.不同糖化工艺对大麦啤酒的麦汁质量的影响[J].食品研究与开发,2012,33(10):153-155.WANG X L,WANG J L.The malt quality research of barley beer[J].Food Research and Development,2012,33(10):153-155.
朱明光, 崔云前,朱维岳,等.不同发酵方法生产100%大麦啤酒饮料的研究[J].现代食品科技,2014,30(10):231-236.ZHU M G,CUI Y Q,ZHU W Y,et al.A comparison of fermentation methods to produce 100% barley beer[J].Modern Food Science and Technology,2014,30(10):231-236.
SHETTY R,ZHUANG S W,OLSEN R L,et al.Effects of added enzymes on sorted,unsorted and sorted-out barley:A model study on realtime viscosity and process potentials using rapid visco analyser[J].Journal of Cereal Science,2017,77:141-146.
YOUSIF A M,EVANS D E.The impact of barley nitrogen fertilization rate on barley brewing using a commercial enzyme (Ondea Pro)[J].Journal of the Institute of Brewing,2018,124(2):132-142.
DI GHIONNO L,SILEONI V,MARCONI O,et al.Comparative study on quality attributes of gluten-free beer from malted and unmalted teff[Eragrostis tef (zucc.) trotter][J].LWT,2017,84:746-752.
CIMINI A,DE FRANCESCO G,PERRETTI G.Effect of crossflow microfiltration on the clarification and stability of beer from 100% low-β-glucan barley or malt[J].LWT,2017,86:55-61.
ZHUANG S W,SHETTY R,HANSEN M,et al.Brewing with 100% unmalted grains:Barley,wheat,oat and rye[J].European Food Research and Technology,2017,243(3):447-454.
陈善峰. 低温挤压加酶大米作啤酒辅料的试验研究[D].保定:河北农业大学,2012.CHEN S F.The experimental study on rice added with enzymes extruded at low temperature used as beer adjunct[D].Baoding:Hebei Agricultural University,2012.
潘小卫, 焦爱权,龙杰,等.加酶挤压高粱小曲酒生产工艺的响应面优化[J].食品与生物技术学报,2019,38(9):27-32.PAN X W,JIAO A Q,LONG J,et al.Design and optimization of an efficient enzymatic extrusion pretreatment for Xiaoqu liquor fermentation[J].Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology,2019,38(9):27-32.
XU E B,WU Z Z,WANG F,et al.Effect of ‘wheat Qu’ addition on the formation of ethyl carbamate in Chinese rice wine with enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment[J].Journal of the Institute of Brewing,2016,122(1):55-62.
李静鹏. 基于高分子取向及复水机理研究的面条酶法挤压工艺创建[D].无锡:江南大学,2020.LI J P.Process creation of enzymatic extruded noodles based on the mechanism of high molecular orientation and rehydration[D].Wuxi:Jiangnan University,2020.
XU E B,WU Z Z,PAN X W,et al.Effect of enzymatic (thermostable α-amylase) treatment on the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of extruded rice incorporated with soybean flour[J].Food Chemistry,2016,197:114-123.
WANG Y Y,HU B,ZHAN J L,et al.Effects of starchy seed crystals on the retrogradation of rice starch[J].Food Chemistry,2020,318.DOI:10.1016/j.foodchem.2020.126487.
中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫局, 中国国家标准化管理委员会.GB/T 24853—2010 小麦、黑麦及其粉类和淀粉糊化特性测定 快速粘度仪法[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2010.State Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China,China National Standardization Administration Committee.GB/T 24853—2010 General pasting method for wheat or rye flour or starch-using the rapid visco analyzer[S].Beijing:China Standards Press,2010.
中华人民共和国国家发展和改革委员会. QB/T 1686—2008 啤酒麦芽[S].北京:中国轻工业出版社,2008.National Development and Reform Commission,People’s Republic of China.QB/T 1686—2008 Barley malt[S].Beijing:China Light Industry Press,2008.
中华人民共和国国家质量监督检验检疫局, 中国国家标准化管理委员会.GB/T 4928—2008 啤酒分析方法[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2009.State Administration of Quality Supervision,Inspection and Quarantine of the People’s Republic of China,China National Standardization Administration Committee.GB/T 4928—2008 Method for analysis of beer[S].Beijing:China Standards Press,2009.
SETH D,BADWAIK L S,GANAPATHY V.Effect of feed composition,moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2015,25(3):1 830-1 838.
BRYANT R J,KADAN R S,CHAMPAGNE E T,et al.Functional and digestive characteristics of extruded rice flour[J].Cereal Chemistry,2001,78(2):131-137.
叶为标. 淀粉糊化及其检测方法[J].粮食与油脂,2009,22(1):7-10.YE W B.The starch gelatinization and its detection methods[J].Cereals & Oils,2009,22(1):7-10.
PUNIA S.Barley starch:Structure,properties and in vitro digestibility—a review[J].International Journal of Biological Macromolecules,2020,155:868-875.
XU E B,WU Z Z,JIN Z Y,et al.Bioextrusion of broken rice in the presence of divalent metal salts:Effects on starch microstructure and phenolics compounds[J].ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering,2018,6(1),1 162-1 171.
徐丹萍. 高压蒸汽蒸煮对米饭食味品质影响及其机理探究[D].无锡:江南大学,2019.XU D P.Effect of high steam pressure cooking on eating quality and preliminary study of the mechanism[D].Wuxi:Jiangnan University,2019.
XU E B,WU Z Z,LONG J,et al.Effect of thermostable α-amylase addition on the physicochemical properties,free/bound phenolics and antioxidant capacities of extruded hulled and whole rice[J].Food and Bioprocess Technology,2015,8(9):1 958-1 973.
张东亮, 何媛媛,杜菲,等.挤压膨化麦仁辅料麦汁中可发酵糖组分分析[J].酿酒科技,2015(4):96-98.ZHANG D L,HE Y Y,DU F,et al.Fermentable sugars in wort made from extruded wheat kernels[J].Liquor-Making Science & Technology,2015(4):96-98.
任璐.关键氨基酸调控啤酒酵母适应高浓酿造环境胁迫的研究[D].杨凌:西北农林科技大学,2017.REN L.Study of adaption to environmental stress of Lager yeast regulated by key amino acids during high gravity[D].Yangling:Northwest Agriculture & Forestry University,2017.