Abstract: Tartary buckwheat and coix seed which are culinary medicinal cereals were used as the main substrate, the ability of Grifola frondosa on degrading main active ingredients in fermentation substrate was explored. Different proportion of Rhizoma gastrodiae was addedin the solid-state fermentation of G. frondosa to explore its decomposition effect of total flavonoids in the culture medium, as well as its effect on p-hydroxymethylphenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (HA), p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde (HBA) and parishin. Results showed that it had the greatest impact on the decomposition of total flavonoids in the substrate when adding 40% of R. gastrodiae, the decomposition degree of total flavonoids was increased by 1.3 times (P<0.01), compared with the control. Both rutin and isoquercitrin contents in the fermentation substrate were significantly reduced. The results showed that gastrodin was completely decomposed by G. frondosa when the amount of R. gastrodiae was 10%-50%. Compared with the control, the ability of G. frondosa to decompose p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol increased by 3.19 times when the amount of R. gastrodiae was 30%. R. gastrodiae with different proportions all had inhibitory effects on the decomposition of p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde and significantly increased the content of parishin.
吴力亚,吴天祥,汪玲. 天麻参与灰树花固态发酵对基质主要活性成分的影响[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2021, 47(16): 40-45.
WU Liya,WU Tianxiang,WANG Ling. Effect of Rhizoma gastrodia participating in Grifola frondosa solid-state fermentation on the main active components of culture medium[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2021, 47(16): 40-45.
 HE X R, WANG X X, FANG J C, et al.Polysaccharides in Grifola frondosa mushroom and their health promoting properties:A review[J].International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2017, 101:910-921.  LU H Y, LOU H H, HU J J, et al.Macrofungi:A review of cultivation strategies, bioactivity, and application of mushrooms[J].Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2020,19(5):2 333-2 356.  ZHANG Z Q, LIU L P, LEI L, et al.Antioxidative and immunomodulatory activities of the exopolysaccharides from submerged culture of hen of the woods or Maitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, Grifola frondosa (Agaricomycetes) by addition of Rhizoma gastrodiae extract and its main components[J].International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 2019,21(8):825-839.  GUO W L, DENG J C, PAN Y Y, et al.Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Grifola frondosa polysaccharides and their relationships with the modulation of intestinal microflora in diabetic mice induced by high-fat diet and streptozotocin[J].International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2020,153:1 231-1 240.  LIU Z J, JIAO Y C, LU H Y, et al.Chemical characterization, antioxidant properties and anticancer activity of exopolysaccharides from Floccularia luteovirens[J].Carbohydrate Polymers, 2020,229:115 432.  ZHANG W W, JIANG X Z, ZHAO S, et al.A polysaccharide-peptide with mercury clearance activity from dried fruiting bodies of maitake mushroom Grifola frondosa[J].Scientific Reports, 2018,8(1):17 630.  YEH J Y, HSIEH L H, WU K T, et al.Antioxidant properties and antioxidant compounds of various extracts from the edible basidiomycete Grifola frondosa (Maitake)[J].Molecules, 2011,16(4):3 197-3 211.  BAYER E, MCLNTYRE G.Magic mushroom[J].Science, 2009,326(5 959):1 463.  QIN P Y, WANG Q, SHAN F, et al.Nutritional composition and flavonoids content of flour from different buckwheat cultivars[J].International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2010,45(5):951-958.  BOYLE S, DOBSON V, DUTHIE S, et al.Bioavailability and efficiency of rutin as an antioxidant:A human supplementation study[J].European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2000,54(10):774-782.  CHIANG H, LU H F, CHEN Y H, et al.Adlay seed (Coix lacryma-jobi L.) extracts exhibit a prophylactic effect on diet-induced metabolic dysfunction and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in mice[J].Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2020:1-12.DOI:10.1155/2020/9519625.  YIN H M, ZHONG Y D, XIA S K, et al.Effects of fermentation with lactobacillus plantarum NCU137 on nutritional, sensory and stability properties of Coix( Coix lachryma-jobi L.)seed[J].Food Chemistry, 2019, 314:126 037.  李旭,徐天娇,刘立琨,等.天麻素联合异钩藤碱抑制MPP+诱导的PC12细胞凋亡的抗氧化机制[J].中国中药杂志,2021,46(2):420-425. LI X, XU T J, LIU L K, et al.Antioxidant mechanism of gastrodin combined with isorhynchophylline in inhibiting MPP+-induced apoptosis of PC12 cells[J].China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica,2021,46(2):420-425.  田孟华, 袁天军, 周瑞, 等.不同产地及变型天麻有效成分差异性分析[J].中成药, 2020,42(7):1 824-1 829. TIAN M H, YUAN T J, ZHOU R, et al.Difference analysis of effective constituents in different growing areas and varieties of Gastrodia elata[J].Chinese Traditional Patent Medicine, 2020,42(7):1 824-1 829.  XIAO M M, ZHANG Y Q, WANG W T, et al.Gastrodin protects against chronic inflammatory pain by inhibiting spinal synaptic potentiation[J].Scientific Reports, 2016,6:37 251.  朱俊杰, 吴天祥, 吴彩云, 等.对羟基苯甲醇对灰树花产胞外多糖的影响及其发酵动力学[J].食品科学, 2016,37(19):123-127. ZHU J J, WU T X, WU C Y, et al.Effect of p-hydroxybenzyl alcohol on the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by submerged culture of Grifola frondosa and fermentation kinetics[J].Food Science,2016,37(19):123-127.  吴彩云, 吴天祥, 朱俊杰, 等.对羟基苯甲醛等3种天麻成分对灰树花胞外多糖生物合成的影响[J].食品科学, 2016,37(7):83-87. WU C Y, WU T X, ZHU J J, et al.Effect of p-hydroxylbenzaldehyde and other main ingredients of Rhizoma gastrodiae on the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharide by Grifola frondosa in submerged culture[J].Food Science,2016,37(7):83-87.  钟敏, 吴天祥, 聂文强, 等.灰树花菌丝体β-葡聚糖提取工艺优化[J].中国酿造, 2017,36(8):90-94. ZHONG M, WU T X, NIE W Q, et al.Optimization of extraction technology of β-glucan from Grifola frondosa mycelium[J].China Brewing, 2017,36(8):90-94.  芦红云, 吴天祥, 钟敏, 等.天麻提取物及其3种主要成分对灰树花产胞外漆酶和菌丝体的影响[J].食品科学, 2018,39(6):101-106. LU H Y, WU T X, ZHONG M, et al.Effect of Rhizoma gastrodiae extract and its three main components on production of laccase and mycelial biomass by submerged fermentation of Grifola frondosa[J].Food Science,2018,39(6):101-106.  WANG J, MA Y L, WU X Y, et al.Selective hydrolysis by commercially available hesperidinase for isoquercitrin production[J].Journal of Molecular Catalysis B:Enzymatic, 2012,81(5):37-42.  WANG J, GONG A, YANG C F, et al.An effective biphase system accelerates hesperidinase-catalyzed conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin[J].Scientific Reports, 2015,5(5):8 682-8 689.  雷露, 吴天祥, 王川南.天麻和苦荞复配液对灰树花胞外多糖合成的影响及其发酵动力学研究[J].食品科学技术学报, 2020,38(1):53-59. LEI L, WU T X, WANG C N, et al.Effect of Gastrodia elata and Fagopyrum tataricum compound solution on synthesis of extracellular polysaccharide from Grifola frondosa and its fermentation kinetics[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology,2020,38(1):53-59.  许玉林, 郑月霞, 叶冰莹, 等.一株纤维素降解真菌的筛选及鉴定[J].微生物学通报, 2013,40(2):220-227. XU Y L, ZHENG Y X, YE B Y, et al.Isolation and identification of a cellulose degrading fungi[J].Microbiology China,2013,40(2):220-227.  SANJUKTA S, RAI A K, MUHAMMED A, et al.Enhancement of antioxidant properties of two soybean varieties of Sikkim Himalayan region by proteolytic Bacillus subtilis fermentation[J].Journal of Functional Foods, 2015,14:650-658.  LIMÓN R I, PEÑAS E, TORINO M I, et al.Fermentation enhances the content of bioactive compounds in kidney bean extracts[J].Food Chemistry, 2015,172:343-352.  ABD RAZAK D L, ABD RASHID N Y, JAMALUDDIN A, et al.Enhancement of phenolic acid content and antioxidant activity of rice bran fermented with Rhizopus oligosporus and Monascus purpureus[J].Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 2015,4(1):33-38.