Abstract: Aspergillus-type Douchi is a traditional Chinese fermented food. In order to explore the changes of volatile components in the rapid fermentation process of Aspergillus-type Douchi, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry coupled with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME-GC-MS) was used to detect the volatile components in cooking, making, washing and post-fermentation. The volatile components in the production process included nine kinds of compounds, i.e. esters, ketones, phenols, alcohols, aldehydes, acids, pyrazines, furans and aromatics groups. Sixty-seven volatile components were detected in the cooking stage, mainly including alcohols, phenols and aldehydes. The highest volatile components were 1-octene-3-ol, n-hexanol and maltol, among which 1-octene-3-ol was the main source of bean odor. Seventy volatile components were detected in the making stage, mainly including alcohols, aromatic groups, acids and furans. The higher volatile components were 1-octene-3-alcohol, styrene, 2-n-pentylfuran, while mild Maillard reaction occurred. Sixty-seven volatile components were detected in the washing stage, mainly including acids, alcohols, aromatics and furans. A large number of 1-octene-3-ol were washed away. Eight-one volatile components were detected in the post-fermentation stage, mainly including aldehydes, acids, phenols and pyrazines. At this stage, the Maillard reaction was intense, large amount of benzaldehyde, cocal, guaiacol, 2, 5-dimethylpyrazines, 2-methylpyrazines and other volatile components were produced. In the production process of Aspergillus-type Douchi with rapid fermentation, the production of volatile components was limited in the making stage, and the post-fermentation stage was the main stage of the formation of volatile flavor substances in Aspergillus-type Douchi.
 DING Y B, LI X Y, KAN J Q.Isolation and identification of flavor peptides from Douchi (traditional Chinese soybean food)[J].International Journal of Food Properties, 2017, 20(2):1 982-1 994.  YANG H L, YANG L, ZHANG J, et al.Exploring functional core bacteria in fermentation of a traditional Chinese food, Aspergillus-type Douchi[J].PLoS One, 2019, 14(12):e0 226 965.  谢艳华, 谢靓, 李跑, 等.GC-MS分析毛霉型、细菌型、曲霉型豆豉中脂肪酸组成[J].中国油脂, 2017, 42(7):115-119;123. XIE Y H, XIE J, LI P, et al.GC-MS analysis of fatty acid composition in Mucor-type, bacterial-type and Aspergillus-type Douchi[J].China Oils and Fats, 2017, 42(7):115-119;123.  陈怡, 刘洋, 蒋立文, 等.浏阳豆豉发酵过程中抗氧化成分及活性变化研究[J].食品工业科技, 2020, 41(19):273-278. CHEN Y, LIU Y, JIANG L W, et al.Study on antioxidant components and activity changes of Liuyang Douchi during fermentation[J].Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2020, 41(19):273-278.  杨洋, 索化夷, 王洪伟.Flash Profile法在豆豉感官评价中的应用[J].中国酿造, 2020, 39(6):181-184. YANG Y, SUO H Y, WANG H W.Application of Flash Profile method in sensory evaluation of Douchi[J].China Brewing, 2020, 39(6):181-184.  李金林, 万亮, 王维亚, 等.基于SPME-GC-MS 技术分析曲霉型豆豉生产过程中的挥发性成分变化[J].食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(15):252-257. LI J L, WAN L, WANG W Y, et al.Change of volatile compounds in Aspergillus-type Douchi during processing evaluated by SPME-GC-MS[J].Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(15):252-257.  邵良伟, 邹强, 张琼, 等.潼川豆豉制曲过程中理化指标变化规律[J].中国调味品, 2019, 44(10):14-17;25. SHAO L W, ZOU Q, ZHANG Q, et al.Changes of physicochemical indexes in koji-making process of Tongchuan fermented soya beans[J].China Condiment, 2019, 44(10):14-17;25.  李薇, 罗沈斌, 邱泽瑞, 等.永川毛霉型豆豉传统发酵过程中微生物群落结构及动态演替规律[J].食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(23):60-67. LI W, LUO S B, QIU Z R, et al.Microbial community structure and dynamic succession in traditional fermentation of Mucor-type Yongchuan Douchi[J].Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(23):60-67.  ZHANG W B, LUO Q Q, ZHU Y, et al.Correction: Microbial diversity in two traditional bacterial douchi from Gansu province in northwest China using Illumina sequencing[J].PLoS One, 2018, 13(5):e0 197 527.  HU H P, HAO J X, CHENG Y Q, et al.Effect of fermented rice culture on the microbiological, biochemical and sensory characteristics of low-salt Douchi, a traditional Chinese fermented soybean condiment[J].International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2012, 47(4):689-695.  汤启成, 曾凡玉, 汪学荣, 等.毛霉型豆豉与曲霉型豆豉挥发性成分的GC-MS分析[J].食品工业, 2016, 37(10):274-278. TANG Q C, ZENG F Y, WANG X R, et al.GC-MS analysis of volatile components in Mucor-fermented soybean and Aspergillus-fermented soybean[J].The Food Industry, 2016, 37(10):274-278.  蒋立文, 谢艳华, 李跑, 等.HS-SPME/GC-MS和电子感官技术分析毛霉型豆豉发酵过程中风味品质[J].核农学报, 2020, 34(7):1 497-1 506. JIANG L W, XIE Y H, LI P, et al.Analysis of the volatile flavor components and quality of Mucor-type Douchi with HS-SPME/GC-MS method and electric-sense technology[J].Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences, 2020, 34(7):1 497-1 506.  韩帅, 高婷婷, 刘玉平, 等.SDE-GC-MS分析浏阳老一品香豆豉的挥发性成分[J].食品与发酵工业, 2013, 39(8):192-197. HAN S, GAO T T, LIU Y P, et al.Extraction and analysis of volatile flavor constituents in Laoyipinxiang Douchi by SDE-GC-MS[J].Food and Fermentation Industries, 2013, 39(8):192-197.  LI J L, TU Z C, SHA X M, et al.Effect of frying on fatty acid profile, free amino acids and volatile compounds of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) fillets[J].Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2017, 41(4):e13 088.  LI J L, TU Z C, ZHANG L, et al.Characterization of volatile compounds in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) soup cooked using a traditional Chinese method by GC-MS[J].Journal of Food Processing and Preservation, 2017, 41(4):e12 995.  LI J L, TU Z C, ZHANG L, et al.The effect of ginger and garlic addition during cooking on the volatile profile of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) soup[J].Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2016, 53(8):3 253-3 270.  李宝丽, 朱宇轩, 邓建玲, 等.基于GC-MS指纹图谱和化学计量分析鉴别预包装纯葡萄汁及葡萄汁制品[J].食品科学, 2015, 36(8):156-161. LI B L, ZHU Y X, DENG J L, et al.Discrimination of prepackaged pure grape juice and its commercial products based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry fingerprints and chemometrics methods[J].Food Science, 2015, 36(8):156-161.  YANG L, YANG H L, TU Z C, et al.High-throughput sequencing of microbial community diversity and dynamics during Douchi fermentation[J].PLoS One, 2016, 11(12):e0 168 166.  KIM I M R, KAWAMURA Y, LEE C H.Isolation and identification of bitter peptides of tryptic hydrolysate of soybean 11S glycinin by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography[J].Journal of Food Science, 2003, 68(8):2 416-2 422.  赵文鹏. 曲霉型豆豉发酵过程中品质特性及微生物变化规律研究[D].南昌:江西师范大学, 2020. ZHAO W P.Quality characteristics and microbial community evolution of Aspergillus-type Douchi during fermentation[D].Nanchang:Jiangxi Normal University, 2020.  范琳, 陶湘林, 欧阳晶, 等.曲霉型豆豉后发酵过程中挥发性成分的动态变化[J].食品科学, 2012, 33(22):274-277. FAN L, TAO X L, OUYANG J, et al.Dynamic changes in volatile components in Aspergillus-type Douchi during post-fermentation[J].Food Science, 2012, 33(22):274-277.  何桂强, 梁如, 黄钧, 等.毛霉型和曲霉型豆豉特征风味的研究[J].食品科技, 2016, 41(4):260-265. HE G Q, LIANG R, HUANG J, et al.Characteristic flavour of Mucor-type and Aspergillus-type Douchi[J].Food Science and Technology, 2016, 41(4):260-265.  管泳宇. 曲霉型豆豉发酵分析及人工接种发酵研究[D].扬州:扬州大学, 2013. GUAN Y Y.Fermentation analysis of Aspergillus-Type Douchi and study on artificial inoculation fermentation[D].Yangzhou:Yangzhou University, 2013.  赵文鹏, 李浩, 杨慧林, 等.曲霉型豆豉发酵阶段细菌群落的演替及其与环境因子的关系[J].食品科学, 2021, 42(4):138-144. ZHAO W P, LI H, YANG H L, et al.Bacterial community succession during the fermentation of Aspergillus-type Douchi, a traditional Chinese fermented soybean product, and its relation with environmental factors[J].Food Science, 2021, 42(4):138-144.  李浩, 梁琦, 杨慧林, 等.快速工艺与传统工艺下曲霉型豆豉发酵过程中细菌演替的比较[J].食品与发酵工业, 2020, 46(23):52-59. LI H, LIANG Q, YANG H L, et al.Bacterial succession of Aspergillus-type Douchi during rapid and traditional fermentation[J].Food and Fermentation Industries, 2020, 46(23):52-59.