Abstract: This study investigated the changes in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) in four different types of commercial foods (coffee, biscuits, instant noodles, and chips) during simulated gastrointestinal digestion. After gastric digestion, a significant increase was observed for the HMF content in all selected foods expect coffee, which confirmed that some undetected HMF in foods during processing and storage were released under gastric condition. After further digestion of the gastric digests under simulated intestinal digestion, the HMF level in all tested foods significantly decreased, and there were large amounts of free amino acid produced. Additionally, the released amino acids, especially cysteine, was inversely proportional to the decrease in HMF in different foods. This may indicate that cysteine may react with HMF under intestinal condition, which resulted in a significant decrease in the concentration of HMF. Since it was observed in current research that forming HMF-cysteine adducts could reduce the toxicity of HMF towards Caco-2 cells, therefore, consuming suitable amount of protein when having foods high in HMF could reduce the toxicity of HMF.
曾睿,邹悦瑜,王歌,等. 4种食品中5-羟甲基糠醛在模拟胃肠消化过程中的变化[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2019, 45(1): 83-87.
ZENG Rui,ZOU Yueyu,WANG Ge,et al. Changes in the content of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in four different types of foods during in vitro gastrointestinal digestion[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2019, 45(1): 83-87.
 裴珂晗, 欧仕益. 食品中5-羟甲基糠醛的形成与控制[J]. 食品安全质量检测学报, 2016, 7(1):251-256.  QIN Lei, ZHANG Yuying, XU Xianbing, et al.Isotope dilution HPLC-MS/MS for simultaneous quantification of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in thermally processed seafood[J]. Food Chemistry, 2017, 232:633-638.  BRUCE W R, ARCHER M C, CORPET D E, et al. Diet, aberrant crypt foci and colorectal-cancer[J]. Mutation Research, 1993, 290(1):111-118.  ABRAHAM K, GUERTLER R, BERG K. Toxicology and risk assessment of 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural in food[J]. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2011, 55(5):667-678.  张玉玉,宋弋,李全宏. 食品中糠醛和5-羟甲基糠醛的产生机理、含量检测及安全性评价研究进展[J]. 食品科学, 2012, 33(5):275-280.  CAPUANO E, FOGLIANO V. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies[J]. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2011,44(45):793-810.  HOIE A H, SVENDSEN C, BRUNBORG G, et al. Genotoxicity of three food processing contaminants in transgenic mice expressing human sulfotransferases 1A1 and 1A2 as assessed by the in vivo alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis assay [J]. Environmental & Molecular Mutagenesis, 2015, 56(8):709-714.  DE LA CUEVA S, ALVAREZ J, VEGVARI A, et al. Relationship between HMF intake and SMF formation in vivo: An animal and human study [J]. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research, 2017, 61(3):DOI:10.1002-mnfr.201600773.  WANG JIN-YUAN, SCHNUTE W C. Simultaneous quantitation of 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole, 2-and 4-methylimidazoles, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in beverages by ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry[J]. Journal of Agricultural & Food Chemistry, 2012,60(4):917.  KOWALSKI S, LUKASIEWICZ M, DUDACHODAK A. 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (HMF) heat-Induced formation, occurrence in food and biotransformation: A review[J]. Polish Journal of Food Nutrition Sciences, 2013, 63(4): 207-225.  CAPUANO E, FOGLIANO V. Acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF): A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food and mitigation strategies[J]. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 2011,44(4):793-810.  KOCADAGLI T, GOKMEN V. Effect of sodium chloride on α-dicarbonyl compound and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formations from glucose under caramelization conditions: A multiresponse kinetic modeling approach[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2016, 64(32):6 333-6 342.  LOCAS C P, YAYLAYAN V A. Isotope labeling studies on the formation of 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) from sucrose by pyrolysis-GC/MS[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2008, 56(15):6 717-6 723.  ANESE M, SUMAN M. Mitigation strategies of furan and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in food[J]. Food Research International, 2013, 51(1): 257-264.  温超,王紫梦,石星波,等. 食品中丙烯酰胺与5-羟甲基糠醛的研究进展[J]. 食品科学, 2015, 36(13):257-264.  GOKMEN V, SENYUVA H Z. Improved method for the determination of hydroxymethylfurfural in baby foods using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2006, 56(8):2 845-2 849.  GOKMEN V, ACAR O C, KOKSEL H, et al. Effects of dough formula and baking conditions on acrylamide and hydroxymethylfurfural formation in cookies[J]. Food Chemistry, 2007, 104(3):1 136-1 142.  WEN Chao, SHI Xingbo, WANG Zimeng, et al. Effects of metal ions on formation of acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in asparagine-glucose model system [J]. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2015, 51(2):279-285.  ZOU Yueyu, PEI Kehan, PENG Xichun, et al. Possible adducts formed between hydroxymethylfurfural and selected amino acids, and their release in simulated gastric model[J]. International Journal of Food Science and Technology, 2016, 51(4):1 002-1 009.  MINEKUS M, ALMINGER M, ALVITO P, et al. A standardised static in vitro digestion method suitable for food-an international consensus [J]. Food & Function, 2014, 5(6): 1 113-1 124.  中华人民共和国卫生部GB/T5009.124—2003. 食品中氨基酸的测定[S]. 北京:中国标准出版社,2004.  HAMZALIOGLU A, GOKMEN V. Formation and elimination reactions of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural during in vitro digestion of biscuits[J]. Food Research International, 2017, 99:308-314.  ZHAO Qianzhu, ZOU Yueyu, HUANG Caihuan, et al. Formation of a hydroxymethylfurfural-cysteine adduct and its absorption and cytotoxicity in caco-2 Cells[J]. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2017,65(45):9 903-9 909.