Abstract: The yogurt was fermented from goat milk that was treated with different concentrations (2, 4, 6, 8 u/g protein) of transglutaminase (TG) to study the effects of TG on the quality of pasteurized goat yogurt. The results showed that TG could significantly reduce the acidity of goat yogurt (P<0.05) after pasteurization, but no significant change was observed (P>0.05) between different concentrations of TG. When the concentration of TG was lower than 4 u/g, the viscosity and water holding capacity of goat yogurt improved significantly (P<0.05) with increasing TG concentration. When the concentration of TG exceeded 4 u/g, the viscosity of goat yogurt was not affected, but the water holding capacity reduced, and it showed inhibitory effects on flavor components acetaldehyde and diacetyl. Texture analysis showed that TG could significantly improve the adhesiveness of goat yogurt (P<0.05) and reduce its cohesiveness. However, no significant difference (P>0.05) in springiness of goat yogurt was found. Comprehensive sensory analysis showed that the pasteurized goat yogurt with 4 u/g TG had the optimal quality.
 顾浩峰,张富新,梁蕾,等.山羊奶与牛奶和人奶营养成分的比较[J].食品工业科技,2012,33(8):369-373.  MEDEIROS G K V V,QUEIROGA R C R E,COSTA W K A,et al. Proteomic of goat milk whey and its bacteriostatic and antitumour potential[J]. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules,2018,113:116-123.  李明轩.常温酸奶生产技术的研究进展[J].农业与技术,2016,36(21):29-31.  吕文君,孙健,马景友,等.长保质期酸奶后杀菌技术的研究[J].中国乳业,2010(12):46-48.  陆东林,刘朋龙.常温酸奶发展现状和前景[J].新疆畜牧业,2018,33(1):8-11.  SANZ CEBALLOS L,RAMOS MORALES E,TORRE ADARVE G D L,et al.Composition of goat and cow milk produced under similar conditions and analyzed by identical methodology[J].Journal of Food Composition & Analysis,2009,22(4):322-329.  JENNESS R.Composition and characteristics of goat milk:review 1968-1979[J].Journal of Dairy Science,1980,63(10):1 605-1 630.  BASIRI S,HAIDARY N,SHEKARFOROUSH S S,et al. Flaxseed mucilage:A natural stabilizer in stirred yogurt[J].Carbohydrate Polymers,2018,187:59-65.  LAL S N D,O′CONNOR C J,EYRES L.Application of emulsifiers/stabilizers in dairy products of high rheology[J].Advances in Colloid & Interface Science, 2006,123(21):433-437.  T S, SEZGIN E,DEVECI O,et al.Effect of using transglutaminase on physical, chemical and sensory properties of set-type yoghurt[J].Food Hydrocolloids,2011,25(6):1 477-1 481.  ABDULATEFMRGHNI A,RUMIKO K,SATOSHI K,et al.Dependence of microbial transglutaminase on meat type in myofibrillar proteins cross-linking[J].Food Chemistry, 2009,112(2):354-361.  GUJRAL H S,ROSELL C M.Functionality of rice flour modified with a microbial transglutaminase[J].Journal of Cereal Science, 2004,39(2):225-230.  IMM J Y,LIAN P,LEE C M.Gelation and water binding properties of transglutaminase-treated skim milk powder[J].Journal of Food Science,2010, 65(2):200-205.  AMIRDIVANI S,KHORSHIDIAN N,FIDELIS M,et al.Effects of transglutaminase on health properties of food products[J].Current Opinion in Food Science,2018,22:74-80.  吴晨呈,许姗姗,徐寅,等.转谷氨酰胺酶改善酸乳凝胶强度的研究[J].食品与机械,2012,28(5):30-33.  TANG Chuanhe,MA Chingyung.Modulation of the thermal stability of β-lactoglobulin by transglutaminase treatment[J].European Food Research and Technology,2007,225(5-6):649-652.  ONER Z,KARAHAN A G,AYDEMIR S,et al. Effect of transglutaminase on physicochemical properties of set-style yogurt[J].International Journal of Food Properties,2008,11(1):196-205.  NHI A S,SAKR S S,AWAD S. Physico-chemical, microstructural and rheological properties of camel-milk yogurt as enhanced by microbial transglutaminase[J].Journal of Food Science & Technology,2017,54(6):1 616-1 627.  SOLEYMANPUORI R,MADADLOU A,ZEYNALI F,et al. Enzymatic cross-linking of soy proteins within non-fat set yogurt gel[J]. Journal of Dairy Research,2014,81(3):378-384.  HASSAN A,Frank J,SCHMIDT K,et al.Textural properties of yogurt made with encapsulated nonropy lactic cultures[J].Journal of Dairy Science,1996,79(12):2 098-2 103.  刘宁宁,郭红敏,葛春美,等.酸奶中乙醛和双乙酰含量对其风味的影响[J].中国食品添加剂,2012(s1):269-273.  VIANNA F S,CANTO A C V C S,COSTA-LIMA B R C D,et al.Development of new probiotic yoghurt with a mixture of cow and sheep milk:effects on physicochemical,textural and sensory analysis[J].Small Ruminant Research,2017,149:154-162.  陈一萌,李思宁,唐善虎,等.不同稳定剂对凝固型牦牛酸奶在冷藏后熟过程中品质及风味的影响[J].食品工业科技,2018,39 (4):188-196.  ROMEIH E,WALKER G.Recent advances on microbial transglutaminase and dairy application[J].Trends in Food Science & Technology,2017,62:133-140.  OZER B,KIRMACI H A,OZTEKIN S,et al.Incorporation of microbial transglutaminase into non-fat yogurt production[J]. International Dairy Journal,2007,17(3):199-207.  KARZAN T M,NAWAL H S,ASHNA T A.The effect of microbial transglutaminase enzyme on some physicochemical and sensory properties of goat's whey cheese[J].International Food Research Journal,2016,32(2):688-693.  TSEVDOU M S,ELEFTHERIOU E G,TAOUKIS P S.Transglutaminase treatment of thermally and high pressure processed milk: Effects on the properties and storage stability of set yoghurt[J].Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies Ifset,2013,17:144-152.  ABOU-SOLIMAN N H I,SAKR S S,AWAD S.Physico-chemical,microstructural and rheological properties of camel-milk yogurt as enhanced by microbial transglutaminase[J].Journal of Food Science & Technology,2017,54(6):1 616-1 627.  FARNSWORTH J P,LI J,HENDRICKS G M,et al.Effects of transglutaminase treatment on functional properties and probiotic culture survivability of goat milk yogurt[J].Small Ruminant Research,2006,65(1):113-121.  杨洋,刘奕伟,周方,等.TG酶与稳定剂复配改善搅拌型酸奶生产特性的研究[J].中国乳品工业,2013,41(4):26-31.  LORENZEN P C,NEVE H,MAUTNER A,et al.Effect of enzymatic cross-linking of milk proteins on functional properties of set-style yoghurt[J].Int J Dairy Technol,2010,55(3):152-157.  CHENG Hefa.Volatile flavor compounds in yogurt:A review[J].Critical Reviews in Food Science & Nutrition,2010,50(10):938-950.  丹彤,包秋华,孟和毕力格,等.发酵乳风味物质乙醛、双乙酰的合成途径及其调控机制[J].食品科技,2012,37(7):75-79.  TSEVDOU M,SOUKOULIS C,CAPPELLIN L,et al.Monitoring the effect of high pressure and transglutaminase treatment of milk on the evolution of flavour compounds during lactic acid fermentation using PTR-ToF-MS[J].Food Chemistry,2013,138(4):2 159-2 167.  GAUCHE C,TOMAZI T,BARRETO P L M,et al.Physical properties of yoghurt manufactured with milk whey and transglutaminase[J].LWT-Food Science and Technology,2009,42(1):239-243.  DOMAGALA J,WSZOLEK M,TAMIME A Y,et al.The effect of transglutaminase concentration on the texture,syneresis and microstructure of set-type goat′s milk yoghurt during the storage period[J].Small Ruminant Research,2013,112(1-3):154-161.  ZHANG Lili,ZHANG Lanwei,HAN Xue,et al.Effects of fat on relationship between particle size and physical properties of cross-linking yogurt by purified transglutaminase from Streptomyces mobaraensis DSM 40587[J].Advanced Materials Research, 2012,468-471(468-471):1 631-1 637.