Abstract: With 10 fish species in Xiamen area as the research objects, the residue dose and characteristics of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in fish were analyzed by QuEChERS-gas chromatography, and their possible health risks were discussed. Fish muscles were extracted with hexane and acetone (1∶1) homogenate and purified with 400 mg PSA, 150 mg C18 and 900 mg magnesium sulfate, followed by GC-ECD and GC-MS analysis. The results showed that the calibration curves were linear in the range of 1-50 ìg/L for each OCP, with correlation coefficients all above 0.998 8, the average recoveries of 83.2%-103.5%, the RSDs of 4.8-12.1%, and the detection limits of 0.01-0.09 μg/kg. Meanwhile, OCPs were detected in all 10 fish species, with the concentrations ranging from 5.532 μg/kg to 22.174 μg/kg. The concentrations of OCPs in Trichiurus lepturus and Ilisha elongata Bennett were the highest, reaching 22.174 μg/kg and 19.910 μg/kg, respectively. P′P′-DDD, P′P′-DDE and â-HCH were the main pollutants. The contents and composition of the isomers indicated that most of the OCPs in Xiamen area were come from early pesticide residues, but there was a suspected contamination of DDT caused by the degradation of dicofol. However, the EDI was far lower than daily food intake from the national standard. Therefore, QuEChERS can be applied to the detection of OCPs in marine fish, and the water environment in Xiamen sea area has been less polluted by OCPs recently, indicating low risk of OCPs by fish consumption.
毕思远,曹建涛,李保玲,等. QuEChERS-气相色谱分析厦门海域鱼体中有机氯类农药残留特征及风险评价[J]. 食品与发酵工业, 2019, 45(21): 229-235.
BI Siyuan,CAO Jiantao,LI Baoling,et al. Determination and risk assessment of organochlorine pesticides in marine fishfrom Xiamen sea area by QuEChERS combined with gas chromatography[J]. Food and Fermentation Industries, 2019, 45(21): 229-235.
 张家泉, 祁士华,邢新丽,等. 闽江干流沿岸土壤及河口沉积柱中有机氯农药分布特征[J]. 环境科学, 2011, 32(3):673-679.  王翀. 宁波、舟山群岛经济海产品中有机氯农药的残留、来源及生态风险研究[D]. 杭州:浙江工业大学, 2012.  徐彪, 孙丙华,姜珊, 等. 巢湖5种鱼类肌肉部位有机氯农药分布特征研究及风险评估[J]. 生物学杂志, 2016, 33(5):19-22.  丘耀文. 大亚湾海域典型有机氯农药生物累积特征及变化因素研究[J]. 海洋学报, 2007, 29(2):51-58.  JIANG Q T, LEE T K M, CHEN K, et al. Human health risk assessment of organochlorines associated with fish consumption in a coastal city in China[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2005, 136(1):0-165.  张春辉, 吴永贵,杨少博,等. 广东沿海3种食用鱼中有机氯农药的残留特征及风险评价[J]. 贵州农业科学, 2015, 43(11):174-178.  PANDIT G G, SAHU S K, SHARMA S, et al. Distribution and fate of persistent organochlorine pesticides in coastal marine environment of Mumbai[J]. Environment International, 2006, 32(2):240-243.  张晓岚, 顾越,李晓静,等. 淀山湖表层水、沉积物和鱼体中有机氯农药的时空变化及人体暴露风险[J]. 上海大学学报(自然科学版), 2016, 22(2):122-130.  曹方方, 于建钊,费金岩,等. 气相色谱-双柱双电子捕获检测器测定鱼肉中的有机氯农药[J]. 理化检验(化学分册), 2017, 53(3):258-262.  NORLI H R, CHRISTIANSEN A, DERIBE E. Application of QuEChERS method for extraction of selected persistent organic pollutants in fish tissue and analysis by gas chromatography mass spectrometry.[J]. Journal of Chromatography A, 2011, 1218(41):7 234-7 241.  ELHAM J, FATEMEH A, MANSOUR F. Evaluation of Quechers sample preparation and GC mass spectrometry method for the determination of 15 pesticide residues in tomatoes used in salad production plants:[J]. Iranian Journal of Public Health, 2016, 45(2):230-238.  TIRYAKI O. Validation of QuEChERS method for the determination of some pesticide residues in two apple varieties[J]. Journal of Environmental Science & Health,part.b, Pesticides Food Contaminants & Agricultural Wastes, 2016, 51(10):722-729.  ISLAM A K M M, HONG S M, LEE H S, et al. Identification and characterization of matrix components in spinach during QuEChERS sample preparation for pesticide residue analysis by LC-ESI-MS/MS, GC-MS and UPLC-DAD[J]. Journal of Food Science & Technology, 2018,55(10):3 930-3 938.  BILEHAL D C, CHETTI M B, DEEPA G T, et al. Multiresidue pesticide analysis using QuEChERS method in vegetable samples by ultra-performance liquid chromatography[J]. Analytical Chemistry Letters, 2016, 6(6):688-696.  BORDIN A B, MINETTO L, FILHO I D N, et al. Determination of pesticide residues in whole wheat flour using modified QuEChERS and LC-MS/MS[J]. Food Analytical Methods, 2016, 10(1):1-9.  CHO J, LEE J, LIM C U, et al. Quantification of pesticides in food crops using QuEChERS approaches and GC-MS/MS[J]. Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess, 2016, 33(12):1 803-1 816.  STEINIGER D, LU G, BUTLER J, et al. Determination of multiresidue pesticides in green tea by using a modified QuEChERS extraction and ion-trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry[J]. Journal of Aoac International, 2010, 93(4):1 169-1 179.  WU C C. Multiresidue method for the determination of pesticides in Oolong tea using QuEChERS by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry[J]. Food Chemistry, 2017, 229:580-587.  HE Z, WANG Y, WANG L, et al. Determination of 255 pesticides in edible vegetable oils using QuEChERS method and gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry[J]. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 2016, 409(4):1 017-1 030.  STREMEL T R D O, DOMINGUES C E, ZITTEL R, et al. Development, validation and matrix effect of a QuEChERS method for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides in fish tissue[J]. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part B, 2018:53(4):246-254.  WATANABE K H, DESIMONE F W, THIYAGARAJAH A, et al. Fish tissue quality in the lower Mississippi River and health risks from fish consumption[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 2003, 302(1):109-126.  NICKLAS PAXÉUS. Organic pollutants in the effluents of large wastewater treatment plants in Sweden[J]. Water Research, 1996, 30(5):0-1 122.  BRUGGEMAN W A. Reversed-phase thin-layer chromatography of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and chlorinated biphenyls relationship with hydrophobicity as measured by aqueous solubility and octanol-water partition coefficient[J]. Journal of Chromatography A, 1982, 238(2):335-346.  QIU X, ZHU T, LI J, et al. Organochlorine pesticides in the air around the Taihu Lake, China[J]. Environ.Sci.Technol, 2004, 38(5):1 368-1 374.  ZHOU R, ZHU L, YANG K, et al. Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in surface water and sediments from Qiantang River, East China[J]. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 2006, 137(1):68-75.  MACKAY D. Correlation of bioconcentration factors[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 1982, 16(5):274-278.  WALKER K, VALLERO D A, LEWIS R G. Factors influencing the distribution of lindane and other hexachlorocyclohexanes in the environment[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 1999, 33(24):4 373-4 378.  KALBITZ, POPP, GEYER, et al. β-HCH mobilization in polluted wetland soils as influenced by dissolved organic matter[J]. Science of the Total Environment, 1997, 204(1):37-48.  UNYIMADU J P, OSIBANJO O, BABAYEMI J O. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in River Niger, Nigeria: Occurrence, distribution and composition profiles[J]. Toxicology & Industrial Health, 2017, 34(1):54-67.  UNYIMADU J P, OSIBANJO O, BABAYEMI J O. Selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in water of River Niger: occurrence and distribution[J]. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 2017, 190(1):6.  IWATA H, TANABE S, SAKAI N, et al. Distribution of persistent organochlorines in the oceanic air and surface seawater and the role of ocean on their global transport and fate[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 1993, 27(6):495-499.  WILLETT K L, ULRICH E M, HITES R A. Differential toxicity and environmental fates of hexachlorocyclohexane isomers[J]. Environmental Science & Technology, 1998, 32(15):2 197-2 207.  AISLABIE J M, RICHARDS N K, BOUL H L. Microbial degradation of DDT and its residues—A review[J]. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 1997, 40(2):14.  BAXTER R M. Reductive dechlorination of certain chlorinated organic compounds by reduced hematin compared with their behaviour in the environment[J]. Chemosphere, 1990, 21(4):451-458.  QIAN Y, ZHENG M, ZHANG B, et al. Determination and assessment of HCHs and DDTs residues in sediments from Lake Dongting, China[J]. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 2006, 116(1-3):157-167.  GUO Y, YU H Y, ZENG E Y. Occurrence, source diagnosis, and biological effect assessment of DDT and its metabolites in various environmental compartments of the Pearl River Delta, South China: a review.[J]. Environmental Pollution, 2009, 157(6):1 753-1 763.  MA X, YONG R, JIAN G, et al. Concentrations and inventories of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organochlorine pesticides in watershed soils in the Pearl River Delta, China[J]. Environmental Monitoring & Assessment, 2008, 145(1-3):453-464.  DOONG R A, SUN Y C, LIAO P L, et al. Distribution and fate of organochlorine pesticide residues in sediments from the selected rivers in Taiwan[J]. Chemosphere, 2002, 48(2):237-246.  SCHUPHAN I, SAJKO B, BALLSCHMITER K. The chemical and photochemical degradation of the cyclodien-insecticides aldrin, dieldrin, endosulfan and other hexachloronorbornene derivatives[J]. Zeitschrift Für Naturforschung B, 1972, 27(2):147-156..  UNYIMADU J P, OSIBANJO O, BABAYEMI J O. Levels of organochlorine pesticides in brackish water fish from Niger River, Nigeria[J]. Journal of Environmental & Public Health, 2018, 2018(8):1-9.  汤清清. 泉州湾鱼体内典型持久性有机污染物水平与食用安全性研究[D]. 厦门:集美大学, 2014.