Quality analysis of eight commercial Pixian broad bean-chili pastes
FAN Zhiyi1, DENG Weiqin1, LI Heng1,2,3, YANG Guohua3,4, LI Jiezhi1, ZHAO Zhishuai1, CHEN Gong1,2*
1(Sichuan Food Fermentation Industry Research Design Institute, Chengdu 611130, China) 2(Sichuan Dongpo Chinese Paocai Industrial Technology Research Institute, Meishan 620030, China) 3(Chengdu Dandan Institute of Sichuan Cuisine Research and Industry, Chengdu 611730, China) 4(Chengdu Dandan Pixian Douban Co., Ltd., Chengdu 611730, China)
Abstract: In order to clarify the quality of different brand of Pixian broad bean-chili pastes, the quality of eight commercial Pixian broad bean-chili pastes were analyzed. National standard analysis methods were used to determine the contents of moisture, sodium chloride, amino nitrogen, total acidity and reducing sugar. A water activity meter was used to determine the water activities of samples, and HPLC were used to detect biogenic amines. Volatile compounds were extracted by headspace solid phase microextraction and analyzed by GCMS. The results showed that basic quality of the eight samples were consistent with the recommended level in the national standard and histamine, putrescine, tyramine and cadaverine were the main biogenic amines. While, biogenic amine of one sample was more than 1 700 mg/kg indicating its safety risk even though the other samples were lower than 300 mg/kg. Furthermore, 104 kinds of volatile compounds were detected and esters, alcohols and phenolic compounds were predominated. Different commercial Pixian broad bean-chili pastes showed great differences on quality, however, there was no obvious difference between the traditional one and red oil flavored Pixian broad bean-chili pastes.
 李幼筠.“郫县豆瓣”剖析[J].中国酿造,2008,27(11):19-23.  高岭.郫县豆瓣的生产工艺改进[J].中国调味品,2006,31(5):34-39.  张茜.郫县豆瓣的历史辨析及使用价值探讨[J].中国调味品,2017,42(10):176-180.  LU Y, TAN X, LV Y, et al.Physicochemical properties and microbial community dynamics during Chinese horse bean-chili-paste fermentation, revealed by culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches[J].Food Microbiology,2020,85:e103309.  邓维琴,陈功,张其圣,等.不同发酵时长郫县豆瓣酱品质对比研究[J].中国调味品,2018,43(11):84-90;94.  GB/T 20560—2006,郫县豆瓣[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2006.  袁旭,伍小宇,李伟丽,等.郫县豆瓣的营养、多酚含量与抗氧化活性评价[J].食品与发酵工业,2018,44(9):270-274.  冯军,陈海涛,黄明泉,等.不同品牌郫县豆瓣酱挥发性成分的比较研究[J].北京工商大学学报(自然科学版),2010,28(3):17-22.  GB/T 5009.3—2016,食品中水分的测定[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2003.  GB/T 12457—2008,食品中氯化钠的测定[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2008.  GB 5009.235—2016,食品安全国家标准 食品中氨基酸态氮测定[S].北京:中国质检出版社,2016.  GB/T 12456—2008,食品中总酸的测定[S].北京:中国标准出版社,2008.  SUMNER J B, SISLER E B, A simple method for blood sugar[J].Archives of Biochemistry,1944,4: 333-336.  陈功,范智义,邓维琴,等.利用高效液相色谱法测定不同发酵时长豆瓣酱中的8种生物胺[J].食品工业科技,2019,40(21):262-267.  赵红宇,徐炜桢,杨国华,等.郫县豆瓣后熟期理化特性与微量元素动态分析[J].食品与发酵工业,2017,43(7):81-86.  CUI Y, QU X, LI H, et al.Isolation of halophilic lactic acid bacteria from traditional Chinese fermented soybean paste and assessment of the isolates for industrial potential [J].European Food Research and Technology,2012,234(5):797-806.  HAN B Z, BEUMER R R, ROMBOUTS F M, et al.Microbiological safety and quality of commercial sufu-a Chinese fermented soybean food [J].Food Control,2001,12(8):541-547.  LIN H, YU X, FANG J, et al.Flavor compounds in Pixian broad-bean paste: non-volatile organic acids and amino acids [J].Molecules,2018,23(6):1 299.  谢思,赵晓燕,杨舒郁,等.郫县豆瓣自然与恒温后熟发酵工艺的对比分析[J].食品科学,2020,41(623):138-144.  SANTOS M H S.Biogenic amines: their importance in foods [J].International Journal of Food Microbiology,1996,29(2-3):213-231.  曾雪晴,李洪军,袁琳娜,等.郫县豆瓣酱中生物胺的含量和种类调查分析[J].食品与发酵工业,2019,45(19):258-265.  KIM T K, LEE J I, KIM J H, et al.Comparison of ELISA and HPLC methods for the determination of biogenic amines in commercial doenjang and gochujang [J].Food Science and Biotechnology,2011,20(6):1 747-1 750.  TANG T, QIAN K, SHI T, et al.Monitoring the contents of biogenic amines in sufu by HPLC with SPE and pre-column derivatization [J].Food Control,2011,22(8):1 203-1 208.  李雄波,邓维琴,万萍,等.豆瓣酱中生物胺研究进展[J].中国调味品,2019,44(3):180-184.  European commission. commission regulation (EC) No 1441/2007 of 5 December 2007 amending regulation (EC) No 2073/2005 on microbiological criteria for foodstuffs (Text with EEA relevance) [M]. Luxembourg:The Publications Office of the European Union, 2007.  PENG X, LI X, SHI X, et al.Evaluation of the aroma quality of Chinese traditional soy paste during storage based on principal component analysis [J].Food Chemistry,2014,151(15):532-538.  ZHANG L, CHE Z, XU W, et al.Dynamics of physicochemical factors and microbial communities during ripening fermentation of Pixian Doubanjiang, a typical condiment in Chinese cuisine [J].Food Microbiology,2020,86:e103342.