摘要 为研究一种合适的干香菇片加工工艺,比较了真空冷冻干燥(freeze-drying,FD)、变功率间歇微波干燥(intermittent microwave drying at different power,IMD)、热风-微波分段联合干燥(hot air followed by microwave drying,HAD+MD)、真空冷冻-微波联合干燥(freeze drying followed by microwave drying,FD+MD)、微波-真空冷冻联合干燥(microwave drying followed by freeze drying,MD+FD)处理对香菇片理化指标、色泽、质构、外观及微观结构的影响,并利用加权灰色关联度分析法计算综合评分。结果显示,FD的ΔE值(10.76±0.83)、复重系数[(59.09±3.91)%]最高(P<0.05),粗蛋白、香菇多糖和还原糖的综合保留率高。FD+MD的皱缩率和粉碎度与FD相近(P>0.05)。质地测试表明,FD+MD和MD+FD的硬度和弹性与FD相近(P>0.05),但咀嚼性和回复性优于FD。IMD和HAD+MD表面形成硬壳,皱缩褐变严重。IMD的甲醛含量[(28.02±0.62) mg/kg]最低(P<0.05)。微观结构显示FD、FD+MD、MD+FD三组呈均匀的蜂窝状结构。综合评价结果为:FD+MD>FD>MD+FD>HAD+MD>IMD。综上,5种方法中,FD+MD最适合加工干香菇片。该研究为香菇干制品加工及品质评价提供了思路。
Abstract: In order to investigate a suitable processing technology to produce dried shiitake slices, this research evaluated the effects of five drying methods, including freeze-drying (FD), intermittent microwave drying at different power (IMD), hot air followed by microwave drying (HAD+MD), freeze-drying followed by microwave drying (FD+MD), and microwave drying followed by freeze-drying (MD+FD), on shiitake slices quality in terms of their physicochemical properties, color, texture, appearance and microstructure. A comprehensive evaluation was performed using grey correlation analysis based on the coefficient of variation. Results showed that the value of ΔE (10.76±0.83) and rehydration coefficient [(59.09±3.91)%] in FD were significantly better than other groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the comprehensive retention of crude protein, lentinan and reducing sugar in FD were great. The shrinkage and fragmentation of FD+MD were similar to FD (P>0.05). Texture test showed that the hardness and springness of FD+MD and MD+FD were similar to FD (P>0.05), and the chewiness and resilience of them were better than FD. And the surface of IMD and HAD+MD formed hard shell which resulting in severe shrinkage and browning. However, the formaldehyde content of IMD [(28.02±0.62) mg/kg] was the lowest (P<0.05). Moreover, a uniform and full honeycomb network microstructure were observed in FD, FD+MD and MD+FD. The comprehensive evaluation result was: FD+MD>FD>MD+FD>HAD+MD>IMD. Therefore, FD+MD was a promising method for processing dried shiitake slices in these five methods. This study provides ideas for processing and quality evaluation of dried shiitake products.
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