Analysis of the flavor compounds in fast-fermented fish sauce fromtilapia by-products during fermentation
BIAN Hao1, CHEN Boyu2, DU Jinjing2, CHEN Zhiyan3, LI Rui4*
1(Department of Tourism, Anhui Business Vocational College, Hefei 230014, China) 2(College of food Science and Technology, Guangdong Ocean University, Zhanjiang 524088, China) 3(College of Food Science and Engineering, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou 225127, China) 4(School of Life Science and Technology, Lingnan Normal University, Zhanjiang 524048, China)
Abstract: In order to investigate the change of flavor compounds in fast-fermented fish sauces during fermentation, tilapia by-products were used as raw material, and fast-fermented fish sauces were prepared by adding mixed protease and soy sauce koji. Flavor compounds of fish sauces during fermentation were analyzed by physicochemical characteristics. The results showed that total nitrogen and amino nitrogen exhibited an initial increase and a final decrease with fermentation time, and reached the peak (1.82 g/100 g and 1.46 g/100 g) at the 3rd and the 5th week, respectively. Among inorganic ions, the content of Na+, Cl- and PO3-4rose slightly, while the content of K+and Ca2+changed little, and the content of Mg2+ decreased slowly. Among free amino acids, the content of umami and sweet amino acids increased rapidly in prior period of fermentation, reached the highest value (4 692.16 g/100 g) at the 5th week, and then decreased gradually. The content of bitter amino acids increased greatly in the late fermentation stage, the content of lysine and arginine increased by 14.27 and 17.75 times at 8th week comparing with that of unfermented samples. Among organic acids, the content of the lactic acid, citric acid, acetic acid and succinic acid increased during fermentation. The content of acetic acid and succinic acid increased by 3.46 and 2.18 times at 8th week, respectively. Among flavor nucleotides, the content of AMP and Hx increased greatly and reached to the highest value (169.26 mg/100 g and 323.18 mg/100 g) at 6th and 8th week respectively. The change of equivalent umami concentration exhibited an initial increase and a final decrease during fermentation, and reached to the highest value (17.59 g MSG/100 g) at 6th week. This study provided theoretical support for techniques optimization and quality control of fast-fermented fish sauce from tilapia by-products.
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