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  Journal Information
Governing Body: China Light Industry Council
Organizers: China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries
China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries
Editor-in-chief: Chi Cheng
Associate Editor-in-chief: Su Yao
Editor-in-charge: Yongjie Yao, Xin Li, Ye Li, Yawei Chen, Rui Li, Ling Dong
Editor: Xintian Wang, Guoxiao Sun, Yue Zheng
English Editor: Yawei Chen, Guoxiao Sun
Issuer: Fang Liu
Frequency of Publication: semimonthly
Place of Publication: Beijing
ISSN 0253-990X
CN 11-1802/TS
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Study on characteristics of wheat granule powder and quality of steamed bread
CHEN Meng, WU Tengfei, WANG Xiaojian, ZHENG Xueling
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (16): 168-173.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032741
Abstract197)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (2187KB)(42)       Save
By selecting eight kinds of wheat granule flour produced by large domestic wheat flour processing enterprises and widely sold at present, and selecting a common wheat flour for comparison, the particle size, basic physical and chemical characteristics, gelatinization characteristics, dough fermentation characteristics, and the quality of steamed bread were studied. Results showed that compared with common wheat flour, the particle size of granular flour was larger, the ash content was lower, and the damaged starch content was lower. In addition, the granular powder had good fermentation characteristics, and the steamed bread made had a large specific volume, small hardness, and is relatively soft and non-sticky. To sum up, compared with ordinary wheat flour, the processing quality of steamed bread with granular wheat flour was better. Therefore, when making flour from wheat flour for steamed bread, the milling process can be appropriately changed, the milling intensity can be controlled, the grinding times can be reduced, the damaged starch content can be reduced, and the use value of wheat flour can be improved. The granular powder can be applied to the development of new steamed bread flour.
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History and research progress on deodorizing and flavoring mechanism of cooking wine
XIAO Yun, LI Xuan, LIU Dantong, ZHOU Shengli, HE Jing, DONG Hua, ZHOU Wanxiang, WANG Min, ZHENG Yu
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (9): 334-339.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034450
Abstract170)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (938KB)(40)       Save
Cooking wine is one of the indispensable seasonings in cooking, which is often used to remove unfavorite smell and enhance the flavor in dish making. In this article, the development history and the research progress on deodorizing and flavoring mechanism of cooking wine are reviewed. The fishy smell substances in meat and aquatic product are mainly due to the metabolism of itself or the bacteria from environment, which will produce a variety of fishy and odorous substances such as fatty acid, trimethylamine, methanethiol, indole, and heterocyclic ammonia nitrogen-containing compounds. Besides ethanol, there are rich flavor substances such as alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, esters in the cooking wine, and ethers, ketones, alkenes from the spice. Those flavor substants can mask or react with fishy smell substances to generate aromatic substances in the cooking process. Meanwhile, in the cooking process, the flavor substances can involve in esterification reaction, Maillard reaction to form aromatic or delicate flavor components which fuse with the flavor of the raw material, thereby improving the flavor of dishes.
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Preparation and properties of chlorophyll microcapsules by complex coacervation using gelatin and pectin
JIN Zihan, LI Yunchang, CHEN Lijun, CHEN Xuehan, CAI Tian, CHEN Kewei
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (7): 190-197.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030463
Abstract169)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (3498KB)(52)       Save
Natural chlorophyll has strong antioxidant activity, but its fat-soluble and easily degradable characteristics limit its application in food processing. In this study, gelatin and pectin were used as composite wall material, and the chlorophyll microcapsules were prepared by the complex coacervation method. Using the embedding rate as an indicator, the optimal parameters were optimized by the response surface test. Results showed that when the pH was 4, the mass ratio of gelatin to pectin was 4∶1, and the mass ratio of gelatin to chlorophyll was 40∶1, the optimal chlorophyll embedding rate was (80.21±1.18)%. Under natural light irradiation, the chlorophyll retention of the microcapsule group was about 40% higher than that of the group without microcapsule treatment. Under acid treatment, even when the chlorophyll microcapsule group was under the acid conditions of pH 2.5 and 4.5, the retention of chlorophyll was all higher than 85%. The average particle size of the chlorophyll microcapsules prepared by the complex coacervation method was (337.2±19.6) nm, and the particle size distribution was uniform and concentrated. Chlorophyll-gelatin/pectin microcapsules were dark green with uniform color. The microscopic structure of the microcapsules was observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Most of the microcapsules were irregularly spherical, loose, and porous, and a few were striped. This research provides references for the application and product development of fat-soluble natural pigments in the food industry.
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Discussion on trace components and efficacy of Zhuifengbazhen wine
YANG Feng, HU Chenggang, YAN Ling, LI Xianzhi, CHEN Yanhe, HU Yang
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (14): 214-220.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032379
Abstract164)   HTML1)    PDF(pc) (2660KB)(13)       Save
In recent years, consumers are paying more and more attention to health, and the demand for health care products is also increasing. Health wine, as a kind of health care product, is more and more favored by consumers, but at the same time, most consumers lack accurate understanding of the efficacy of some health wine. In order to meet the needs of consumers, increase consumers′ awareness of health wine, guide their healthy and reasonable consumption, and promote the high-quality development of health wine. This study took Zhuifenbazhen wine as the object, studied the trace components in Zhuifengbazhen wine, and analyzed its efficacy, so as to provide a scientific basis for the function of Zhuifengbazhen wine and increase consumers′ understanding of health wine, guiding their scientific and reasonable consumption.
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Ameliorating effects of chicory, tangerine peel, chicken gizzards, hawthorn and Phyllanthus emblica on rats with gastric motility disorders
YU Zhuohang, TANG Xin, ZHANG Qiuxiang, CUI Shumao, MAO Bingyong
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (19): 83-89.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034997
Abstract162)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (5443KB)(55)       Save
In this study, a rat model of gastric motility disorders was used to study the ameliorating effects of five medicinal and edible homologous plants, including chicory, tangerine peel, chicken gizzards, hawthorn, and Phyllanthus emblica. The gastric emptying rate, gastric acid, protease, gastric juice, serum ghrelin, gastrin, tyrosinase receptor gene (c-kit) and stem cell factor were measured, and the antral tissue sections were observed. Chicory, hawthorn, and P. emblica significantly increased the gastric emptying rate (P<0.05). Chicory and tangerine peel significantly decreased the activity and excretion rate of gastric free acid (P<0.05). Hawthorn significantly increased the activity and excretion of pepsin (P<0.05). Chicken gizzards significantly increased the pepsin excretion rate and gastric fluid volume (P<0.05). In addition, chicory and hawthorn significantly increased the content of serum ghrelin (P<0.05), and P. emblica significantly increased the content of serum gastrin (P<0.05). Chicory can repair the gastric fundic gland layer and significantly up-regulate the transcription level of c-kit. In conclusion, chicory, hawthorn, and P. emblica could promote gastric motility and have the potential to be developed into pro-digestive foods.
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Molecular modification of difructose anhydride hydrolase to improve its enzymatic activity
XU Hanbing, YU Shuhuai
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (5): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031941
Abstract159)   HTML8)    PDF(pc) (1952KB)(77)       Save
Difructose anhydride Ⅲ hydrolase (DFA-Ⅲase) is an enzyme that can convert the novel sweetener difructose anhydride (DFA-Ⅲ) to prebiotics inulobiose. However, the activity of DFA-Ⅲase is rather low. A DFA-Ⅲase from Arthrobacter chlorophenolicus A6 namely AcDFA-Ⅲase was molecularly modified, to obtain the difructose anhydride Ⅲ hydrolase with excellent enzymatic properties and improve the ability to synthesize inulin by enzymatic method. Based on the known crystal structure of AcDFA-Ⅲase, 14 key sites located at the active pocket and loop region above the active pocket were selected for site-directed mutagenesis, and by which 17 mutants were obtained. The mutant D380A with increased enzyme activity was screened out by using 96 well plate as the high-throughput culture container and DNS colorimetry as the assay method of enzymatic activity testing. The mutant was then fermented in shake flask and purified by nickel column. Enzyme activity was determined by HPLC, and the result showed that enzyme activity of D380A was significantly improved, which was 162.3% of AcDFA-Ⅲase. Homologous modeling analysis showed that, after mutation of the aspartic acid residue at site 380 was changed to alanine, the hydrophobicity of loop region was enhanced, which guaranteed the hydrophobic microenvironment and improved the enzymatic catalysis activity. The high-throughput detection method established in this study lays a foundation for the screening of difructose anhydride Ⅲ hydrolase DFA-Ⅲase and the mass production of inulobiose.
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Research progress on effect of irradiation sterilization on food quality and its control
HE Kaifeng, CHEN Xiujin, ZANG Peng, DONG Haisheng, ZHANG Mengying, LI Zhaozhou
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (10): 299-305.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032622
Abstract156)   HTML6)    PDF(pc) (2228KB)(68)       Save
As an efficient non-thermal sterilization technology, irradiation sterilization can not only effectively kill the majority of harmful microorganisms in food, but also maintain the original quality of food to the greatest extent, and ensure food safety. Irradiation sterilization is a potential technology for prolonging the shelf life of food and ensuring food quality. Therefore, we introduce the principle and characteristics of irradiation sterilization, overviews the influence and control measures of irradiation sterilization on food quality and nutrients, and put forward the problems and measures in the application of irradiation sterilization in food industry.
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Current advances in the biotransformation of new type sweeteners Rebaudioside D and Rebaudioside M
GUO Baodang, RAO Yijian
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (7): 289-296.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032574
Abstract148)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (3637KB)(55)       Save
Owing to high-intensity sweetness, zero-calorie and advanced organoleptic properties similar to sucrose, natural sweeteners rebaudioside D (Reb D) and rebaudioside M (Reb M), which were isolated from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, have been considered as the desired substitute of high-calorie sugars with promising future in food field. Here, the chemical structure, taste, solubility and safety of Reb D and Reb M and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of Reb D and Reb M are reviewed. The protein structure and catalytic mechanism of the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of Reb D and Reb M and rational protein engineering based on the protein structure were emphatically reviewed. We expected that this review will provide a guidance for the development and application of Reb D and Reb M.
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Effect of nitrate respiration and nitrogen flux restriction on arginine production of Corynebacterium crenatum
ZHANG Hao, LI Xialan, HUANG Mingzhu, CHEN Xuelan
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (7): 1-8.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032072
Abstract148)   HTML17)    PDF(pc) (1410KB)(61)       Save
Arginine is widely used in food, medicine and industrial fields, and its production method is mainly microbial fermentation. Corynebacterium crenatum is an important engineered strain for arginine production. As a facultative aerobic bacterium, it is crucial to ensure a certain level of oxygen supply during fermentation. However, any aerobic bacteria fermentation industry in the late fermentation, and the dissolution of oxygen absorption will be interfered with high density of bacteria. In this case, even improvement of bioreactor ventilation and stirring speed can also be difficult to meet the oxygen demand of arginine production. In the late of the aerobic fermentation, accompanied by a lot of anaerobic fermentation process, intracellular metabolism is directed towards the synthesis of unwanted compounds such as lactic acid and alcohol, which severely inhibits the accumulation of target metabolites. Many microorganisms have nitrate respiration systems, using nitrate as an electron acceptor to generate energy for their growth and metabolism under hypoxic conditions. The results showed that the transcription product of arnR was a negative regulator of nitrate reductase. Thus, decrease of its expression could relieve the restriction of nitrate respiration in C. crenatum under aerobic conditions, and promote the accumulation of arginine. In addition, as the amino acid with the highest nitrogen content, the synthesis of L-arginine was closely related to the absorption and utilization efficiency of nitrogen sources. NH4+ is the most preferred nitrogen source for most microorganisms, but high concentrations of NH4+ have toxic effects on the growth of bacteria. Therefore, promoting the assimilation process of ammonia is necessary for the synthesis of arginine. The main function of glutaminase encoded by cgl2482 is to catalyze the decomposition of glutamine into glutamate and NH4+, and its activity is not conducive to the assimilation of ammonia and the synthesis of intracellular nitrogen sources flowing into arginine. In this paper, the metabolic transformation of C. crenatum (CCM01) previously constructed by the research group was carried out, and the effect of knockout of arnR and cgl2482 on the production of arginine by C. crenatum was explored. The engineered strains were constructed by the traceless knockout method and subjected to shake flask fermentation. The bacterial growth, L-arginine production and glucose consumption were determined to investigate the effect of the strains on L-Arg production. Nitrate could increase the growth rate of C. crenatum on lack of oxygen, and the arnR knockout contributed to the accumulation of L-arginine. The arnR knockout strain CCM02 increased the yield by 8.58% compared with the control strain, and when the nitrate concentration of 1.5 mmol/L was the most favorable for the accumulation of L-arginine, and the yield reached 17.09 g/L; the knockout of cgl2482 helped the nitrogen source to flow into the arginine synthesis pathway, and its knockout strain CCM03 arginine The yield reached 17.88 g, which was 4.9% higher than the control. Finally, when 1 g/L urea, 50 g/L sodium glutamate and 1.5 mmol/L nitrate were added to the CCM03 fermentation, the L-arginine yield reached 22.25 g/L, 46.8% higher than CCM01. The research results can be used as a new strategy to obtain arginine high-producing strains.
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Metabolic engineering modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-valine production
HOU Yingjie, YANG Hao, HUANG Wenzhang, XU Jianzhong, ZHANG Weiguo
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (8): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033158
Abstract145)   HTML10)    PDF(pc) (3154KB)(101)       Save
L-valine is an indispensable branched-chain amino acid. With the increasing market demand for L-valine, it is of great significance to further improve the production and the conversion rate of glucose of L-valine. In this study, the laboratory-conserved Corynebacterium glutamicum VHL-1 was used as the starting strain, the production of L-valine and the supply of pyruvate precursors were significantly improved by metabolic modification of the L-valine synthesis pathway. First, the pyruvate enrichment was achieved by knocking out the ldh (encoding lactate dehydrogenase), poxB (encoding pyruvate oxidase), and pyc (encoding pyruvate carboxylase) genes and by weakening alaT (encoding alanine transaminase) gene expression. Second, the original promoter of the ilvBNC manipulator was replaced with the strong promoter Ptuf and the copy number of the ilvBN (encoding acetylhydroxylate synthase) gene was increased to enhance the carbon metabolic flow of pyruvate to L-valine synthesis. Finally, the exocytosis efficiency of L-valine was enhanced by overexpressing of the branched-chain amino acid transfer protein-encoding gene brnFE and regulating protein-encoding gene lrp. The final constructed recombinant strain VHL-9 was incubated in a 5 L bioreactor with fed-batch culture. The yield of L-valine reached (82.5±5.6) g/L with a production intensity of 1.15 g/(L·h), and the sugar-acid conversion rate was 0.302 g/g glucose.
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Edible safety and flavor characteristics of bacterial fermented Douchi in Chongqing and Guizhou regions
YANG Zhibo, TAN Xiaoqin, ZHOU Caiqiong
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (5): 124-133.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031869
Abstract145)   HTML3)    PDF(pc) (2475KB)(47)       Save
The samples of traditional bacterial fermented Douchi from Chongqing and Guizhou were collected, and their hygienic indexes were detected and the characteristics of flavor and quality were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the distribution of water content in Douchi from different origins was very different. Food hygiene indicators, i.e. content of thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (POV), volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N) and content of nitrite were in the range of 1.50-2.89 mg/100g, 0.03-1.94 meq/kg, 0.58-5.13 mg/g ,and 0.6-2.3 mg/kg, lower than the relevant limit standards; the coefficient of variation of POV was higher than that of TBA content, indicating that the primary oxidation products of different Douchi samples were different. Microbiological analysis showed that the total number of colonies in each sample was 5.0-8.4 lg CFU/g, and no yeast, mold and lactic acid bacteria were detected. The taste quality analysis showed that the sour, fresh, sweet, and salty tastes of Douchi from different sources and different water contents were quite different, the average salt content of dry Douchi was much higher than that of wet Douchi. Eight samples with different water content from different regions were selected for analysis of volatile flavor components. The results showed that carboxylic acids, hydrocarbons, esters ,and alcohols were the main flavor components affecting traditional bacterial Douchi. The odor contribution value (OCV) of 3-methylvaleric acid in No. 1, 10, 12 and 15 was 39.73%, 41.83%, 40.01% and 49.71%, respectively, with obvious bitterness; the total OCV of D-limonene and linalool of sample No.9 was 43.17%, with the aroma of lemon and magnolia. Flavor of No.13 was affected by 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine and D-limonene, showing a roasted aroma with lemon note; all 8 samples contained isovaleric acid, and the OCV value was 0.04%-1.57%. The traditional workshop-style bacterial-fermented Douchi in the Chongqing and Guizhou regions has great differences in flavor characteristics due to the eating methods and regional flavor preferences after fermentation, but all of them are safe to eat.
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Research progress of marine oligosaccharides and their application in functional foods
LI Lingcui, WANG Peipei, WU Wenhui, CHEN Shunsheng
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (5): 313-320.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032319
Abstract144)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (2655KB)(48)       Save
Marine oligosaccharides are a series of oligosaccharide fragments with a degree of polymerization of 2-10 obtained by various chemical, physical, and enzymatic degradation of polysaccharides in marine organisms, which have the advantages of good water solubility, low molecular weight, and easy absorption. Studies have found that marine oligosaccharides have physiological activities such as anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, improving cardiovascular disease, improving Alzheimer’s disease, and promoting skin tissue healing and regeneration. In this review, the research progress on the source, structure, biological activity and application of marine oligosaccharides in functional foods and food additives in recent years were reviewed to provide a reference for the development of blue food based on marine oligosaccharides.
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Study on deodorization effect of powdered spent coffee grounds and its extract on tilapia
HU Yuan, SHI Wenzheng, LU Ying
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (9): 244-251.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031462
Abstract143)   HTML4)    PDF(pc) (2345KB)(30)       Save
To improve the fishy smell of tilapia, spent coffee grounds were used as raw materials to study the deodorization effects of powdered spent coffee grounds on the tilapia body surface and spent coffee grounds extract on refrigerated tilapia meat. GC-MS analysis of tilapia skin and powdered spent coffee grounds showed that the treatment with powdered spent coffee grounds reduced the intensity of fishy odor on the body surface of tilapia, and the content of 12 odorous active components related to fishy smell in the body surface decreased by 74.09% after treatment. However, the compounds related to the fishy smell in powdered spent coffee grounds increased. Combined with scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, it was considered that the powdered spent coffee grounds could deodorize the body surface by means of adsorption. Combined with sensory evaluation and GC-MS analysis of the effect of spent coffee grounds extract on the flavor of refrigerated tilapia, it was found that the accumulation rate of fishy flavor compounds in the spent coffee grounds extract group was effectively controlled, and the overall flavor was better than that in the control group. HPLC analysis showed that there was abundant chlorogenic acid in spent coffee grounds extract, and according to the decreased lipoxygenase activity and the slow growth of thiobarbituric acid value in the spent coffee grounds extract treatment group, it could be considered that the flavor improvement of refrigerated fish by spent coffee grounds extract mainly caused by inhibiting the activity of lipoxygenase and delaying the oxidation of fish fat. This study can provide a scientific basis for the fishy smell removal of freshwater fish.
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Research on sensory quality evaluation system of Huangjiu: Taking Shaoxing rice wine as an example
WANG Meng, ZHOU Zhilei, JI Zhongwei, ZHOU Jiandi, XU Xibiao, XU Yuezheng, XU Qiuyue, MAO Jian
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (8): 7-13.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032353
Abstract142)   HTML7)    PDF(pc) (3894KB)(74)       Save
Sensory quality is an important factor affecting consumers' preference and acceptance of drinks. It is one of the focuses to develop scientific and effective sensory quality evaluation methods for industry and researchers. At present, there are few reports on sensory evaluation methods and systems of Huangjiu, which can't adapt to the demand of industry development. In this research, Shaoxing rice wine was taken as an example to construct a relatively systematic sensory evaluation method of Huangjiu. The method mainly included the construction of flavor wheel, the analysis of flavor characteristics and the establishment of sensory quality evaluation standard. The flavor wheel included 57 descriptive words of olfaction, taste, texture, and aftertaste. The 24 core descriptors of Shaoxing rice wine were screened by the means of variance analysis. At the same time, the method analysed the flavor characteristics of different types of Shaoxing rice wine by the radar map, and the evaluation standard of Huangjiu sensory quality consisting of 12 scoring indexes and 4 scoring gradients was further established. The national judges of Huangjiu scored different quality of Huangjiu according to this standard, and successfully distinguished the samples, indicating that the method can effectively assess the sensory quality of Shaoxing rice wine. The sensory evaluation system of Huangjiu is beneficial to scientifically and effectively identify the quality of Huangjiu products for consumers, and provides the foundation and means for the analysis and evaluation of the sensory quality of Huangjiu.
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Heterologous expression of protein glutaminase in Pichia pastoris
GUO Ruiqi, XIANG Kangming, ZHANG Zhengyu, HUANG Jing, ZOU Chunjing, JIN Mingfei
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (7): 26-31.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032245
Abstract139)   HTML12)    PDF(pc) (1413KB)(75)       Save
Protein-glutaminase (PG) can hydrolyze glutamine residues of protein side chains to produce ammonia and protein-L-glutamate, thus increasing negative charge and decreasing isoelectric point of protein to improve functional properties of protein. However, the original strain Chryseobacterium proteolyticum has low yield of PG (only 0.258 U/mL) and poor capability for genetic manipulation, so heterologous expression has been adopted in recent years to improve yield of PG. In this study, we successfully produced heterologous Pro-PG from Pichia pastoris GS115.Beyond heterologous expression, further experiments were launched to optimize the culture medium and identify the characteristics of recombinant PG. Results showed that trypsin incubated PG activity from the recombinant P. pastoris pPIC9K-Pro-PG /GS115 was promoted to 0.878 U/mL induced with additional 1% methanol for 120 h in shaking flasks. Moreover, the results of the enzyme characteristics study confirmed that the optimal temperature of the recombinant PG was 60℃, and the relative enzyme activity remained more than 80% under the condition of less than 60℃ for 1h. The optimal pH of PG was 6.0, and the relative enzyme activity remained above 70% at pH 3.0-8.0 for 1h.
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Bifunctional nanoprobe-based immunochromatographic assays for food safety monitoring
LENG Yuankui, HUANG Shijin, CHEN Xirui, XIONG Yonghua
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (6): 300-307.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032262
Abstract139)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2508KB)(115)       Save
Immunochromatographic assay (ICA) plays a crucial role in daily food safety inspection. Materials for probes are key factors to determine the analytical performances of ICA test strips. Numerous studies have demonstrated that bifunctional probes based on functional integration can significantly improve the performance of ICA. Dual-signal probe-, magnetic-optical nanoprobe-based ICAs and multilevel colorimetric ICA reinforced by signal amplification generated by catalytic probes have attracted much attention due to their manifested analytical properties and application potential. Herein, we review the principles of the above three types of ICAs, their recent advances, and applications for food safety. We also discuss the challenges and future prospects of this field.
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Preparation of a high purity small molecule anti-alcoholic liver protecting peptide
WEN Qingshi, WEI Hefen, ZHOU Jingwei, YING Hanjie, CHEN Yong, LIU Qingguo, YUAN Tong, LIU Miao, SHEN Caihong, WANG Songtao
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (7): 174-180.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032219
Abstract138)   HTML2)    PDF(pc) (1567KB)(49)       Save
At present, the research of marine bioactive peptides in functional foods has become popular. To solve the problem of the deficiency in traditional Chinese and Western anti-alcoholics, a small molecule anti-alcoholic liver protecting peptide with high purity and activity was prepared in this study. Squid protein was moderately hydrolyzed by multiple enzymes, and the protein recovery rate and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activation rate were used as indicators. The optimum enzymatic hydrolysis conditions were∶pepsin∶alkaline protease∶flavor protease=1∶1∶1, enzyme addition 0.2% (mass fraction), solid-liquid ratio 1∶10 (g∶mL) and reaction time 3 h. Under the optimum conditions, the protein recovery rate was 80.34% and the ADH activation rate was 83.37%. In order to further purify the small peptide and improve its functional activity, the refining process of the enzymatic hydrolysate was studied. The hydrophobic peptide components were adsorbed by resin, eluted with gradient ethanol, and the collected solution was concentrated and dried to obtain a light yellow peptide powder. The purity of its protein peptide was 95.33%, peptide with the molecular weight under 3 000 Da was 99.96%, the ADH activation ratio was 122.71%, and the scavenging rate of DPPH free radical was 92.01%. The small peptide products prepared in this study have great application potential in the field of functional food.
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Ameliorative effect and mechanism of chitooligosaccharides on insulin resistance of HepG2 cells
LIU Peng, LI Heng, GONG Jinsong, JIANG Min, XU Hongyu, XU Zhenghong, SHI Jinsong
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (5): 32-37.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032124
Abstract134)   HTML5)    PDF(pc) (2519KB)(29)       Save
Chitooligosaccharides (COS) is an oligosaccharide with various biological activities. To explore the effects of COS and its monomer components (degrees of polymerization 2-4) on insulin resistance of hepatocytes, an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell model was established by insulin induction. The results showed that COS significantly enhanced the glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG2 cells, suggesting that it promoted glucose metabolism of those cells. Further evaluation of the monomer components of COS exhibited that chitotriose obviously promoted the glucose consumption in insulin resistant HepG2 cells, while chitobiose and chitosan could not significantly show that ameliorative effect. Further mechanism analysis illustrated that COS and chitotriose increased the protein levels of insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and activated protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), while it improved the transcription level of related genes as well. Conclusively, COS improved the insulin resistant HepG2 cells by activating Akt/GLUT4 pathway, among which chitotriose showed excellent performance.
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Analysis of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ quality during different growth periods
CHEN Yuting, FU Manqin, WU Jijun, YU Yuanshan, WEN Jing, XU Yujuan
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (10): 251-258.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031844
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This study aimed to understand the dynamic changes of the physicochemical properties and active components of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ fruits in different growth stages, taking Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ in different growth periods (2021.7.20—2021.12.20) as the object. The contents of main flavonoids, organic acids, and soluble sugars in fruit peel, fruit residue, and fruit juice were analyzed by HPLC. Results showed that from July to December, the weight of single fruit, pH value, peel rate, sugar-acid ratio, and soluble solids of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ increased gradually, and titratable acid content was significantly reduced. The content of citric acid decreased significantly from 46.54 mg/mL to 9.84 mg/mL. The content of sucrose increased by 97.15 mg/mL. The total phenolic and the total flavonoid content of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ fruit was in the order of peel > pomace > juice. The content of total phenols in the peel decreased from 0.33 mg GAE/g DW to 0.14 mg GAE/g DW. The contents of hesperidin, tangeretin, sinensetin, and nobiletin were significantly decreased. The DPPH free radical scavenging capacity and ABTS cationic radical scavenging capacity of peel showed a downward trend and the differences were significant, the decline rates were 31.13% and 49.27%, respectively. This change rule lay a foundation for comprehensive processing and utilization of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’ fruit and had reference value for quality control of Citrus reticulata ‘chachi’.
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Effects of modification on physicochemical properties and structure of insoluble dietary fiber from persimmon pomace
WANG Wenjun, ZHOU Ning, HAN Dongjing, WANG Zhihua, ZHOU Chunyang, LIU Guoqing
Food and Fermentation Industries    2023, 49 (6): 221-226.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030431
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In this study, the modification of persimmon pomace insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) was carried out by the compound enzyme method and alkaline hydrogen peroxide method, and the physicochemical properties and microstructure of IDF were compared before and after modification. Results showed that the two modification methods could improve the water-holding capacity, swelling capacity, nitrite adsorption, and cation exchange capacity of IDF. Among them, the water holding capacity of IDF modified by the alkaline hydrogen peroxide method could reach 6.84 g/g and the cation exchange capacity could reach 0.36 mmol/g. The modified IDF had a loose structure and increasing cracks. XRD results showed that the modification did not change the crystal configuration of IDF, which still retained the typical cellulose structure. FT-IR results showed that the main functional groups did not change significantly before and after modification. The characteristic absorption peak and position did not change, but the intensity decreased. In general, the modification effect of the alkaline hydrogen peroxide method was better than the compound enzyme method, which could be used as an excellent method to modify the insoluble dietary fiber of persimmon pomace, so as to improve the comprehensive utilization rate of persimmon pomace and develop new products in the food industry.
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