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  Journal Information
Governing Body: China Light Industry Council
Organizers: China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries
China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries
Editor-in-chief: Chi Cheng
Associate Editor-in-chief: Su Yao
Editor-in-charge: Yongjie Yao, Xin Li, Ye Li, Yawei Chen, Rui Li, Ling Dong
Editor: Xintian Wang, Guoxiao Sun, Yue Zheng
English Editor: Yawei Chen, Guoxiao Sun
Issuer: Fang Liu
Frequency of Publication: semimonthly
Place of Publication: Beijing
ISSN 0253-990X
CN 11-1802/TS
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As one of the essential amino acids,厶-valine plays an important role in physioloxy and biochemistro. Pyruvate io not only the precursor nee......
Current Issue In Press Online First Archive Top Read Top Downloaded
Food and Fermentation Industries (F&FI, CN 11-1802/TS, ISSN 0253-990X) was founded in 1970 and published semimonthly, which is the first scientific and technological journal in the Chinese food industry. F&FI is a Chinese core journal, under the charge of China National Light Industry Council and sponsored, edited, and published by China National Research Institute of Food & Fermentation Industries Co. Ltd. and China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries (FFIC). F&FI focuses on the interdisciplinary of food and fermentation, including research papers on food science and engineering, fermentation engineering, bioengineering, food safety, engineering design, and other aspects, as well as reviews on the development trends and industrial innovation of food and fermentation science and technology at home and abroad. F&FI represents a high academic level in the field of modern food and fermentation in China and has built an excellent platform for scientists and R&D teams.
  25 January 2024, Volume 50 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
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Alleviating effects and mechanisms of Lactobacillus plantarum on muscle injury after high-intensity exercise in mice
YAN Zhonghan, SHI Liuting, ZHAO Jianxin, ZHANG Hao, WANG Gang, CHEN Wei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 1-7.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035298
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (9854KB) ( 16 )  
In order to explore the alleviating effects of two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum on muscle injury and decreased muscle energy metabolism ability in mice after high-intensity exercise and its relationship with the changes in intestinal environment, a high-intensity exercise mouse model was established through 6-week weight-bearing swimming, during which L. plantarum strains were used to treat these model mice. After 30 min of non-weight-bearing swimming, the changes of relevant biochemical indexes and gut microbiota in mice with the intervention of L. plantarum (6-week, 2×108 CFU/d) were checked. The results showed that the content of lactate in muscle and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in serum of mice were significantly increased by high-intensity exercise. L. plantarum 73L1 significantly reversed this change, suggesting that this strain can relieve lactic acid accumulation and injury of gastrocnemius muscle under high-intensity exercise. In addition, the intervention of this strain significantly increased the relative abundance of Oscillibacter, and decreased the relative abundance of Candidatus Saccharimonas and Ruminococcaceae UCG-005. Correlation analysis results showed that the relative abundance of Candidatus Saccharimona was significantly positively correlated with lactate dehydrogenase activity (P<0.001). In conclusion, L. plantarum 73L1 has a good ability to relieve muscle injury caused by high-intensity exercise in mice. This ability is significantly related to its specific regulation on gut microbiota. These results suggest that reducing the relative abundance of intestinal Candidatus Saccharimonas may be a potential mechanism by which L. plantarum 73L1 alleviates muscle injury caused by high-intensity exercise in mice.
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Research on the content and distribution of volatile thiol compounds in sauce-aroma Baijiu production
XIANG Danhua, LI Peiqi, WANG Jiabao, CHEN Shuang, XU Yan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 8-14.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035560
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML    PDF (1970KB) ( 9 )  
Volatile thiol compounds are a kind of flavor compound existed in low level with extremely low threshold and have an important impact on the flavor quality in sauce-aroma Baijiu. It is of great significance for scientific control of the flavor quality of sauce-aroma Baijiu to analyze the distribution of volatile thiol compounds in the Baijiu brewing process. In this study, a method was established to detect nine representative volatile thiol compounds by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and 4,4′-dithiodipyridine (DTDP) derivatization combined with solid phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment. The content of volatile thiol compounds in different rounds of liquor (1-7 rounds of Baijiu) and distilled liquor distilled at different time (within 60 min) in a single round were analyzed. The results showed that the content of 2-methyl-3-furanethiol (content range: 0.65-17.31 μg/L) and 2-furfurylthiol (content range: 16.96-26.09 μg/L) and other important volatile thiol compounds with extremely low threshold gradually increased with the number of rounds in three groups of sauce-aroma Baijiu. Most thiols showed the change law of first rising and then decreasing content in distilled liquor distilled from three fermented grains (the upper, middle, and bottom layers), and a part of thiols changed steadily. The thermal reaction in the distillation process promoted the production of these volatile thiol compounds.
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Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for efficient synthesis of free fatty acids
ZHU Manzhi, CHEN Xianzhong, SHEN Wei, YANG Haiquan, XIA Yuanyuan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 15-22.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035618
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (2486KB) ( 2 )  
Fatty acids are attractive biomolecules that have important applications in industry because of their high energy content and their use as precursors for other high-value chemicals. Bio-based production of fatty acids can enable sustainable substitution of petroleum-derived fuels and chemicals. In this paper, we used Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 as a chassis cell to enhance the synthesis of free fatty acids (FFAs) through systematic metabolic engineering modifications. First, the synthesis of FFAs was enhanced by deleting the genes encoding acyl-CoA synthases FAA1, FAA4, and FAT1, and the FFAs of the yeast engineered strain reached 384.4 mg/L. Further, the β-oxidation pathway of the yeast cells was disrupted by knocking out POX1, FAA2, and PXA2, which further enhanced the extracellular FFAs to 394.9 mg/L. Subsequently, dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid (PA) was reduced by knocking out the genes encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatases DPP1, LPP1, and PAH1, upregulating the ability of the obtained yeast engineered with multiple gene deletions (Δfaa1 Δfaa4 Δfat1 Δpox1 Δfaa2 Δpxa2 Δdpp1 Δlpp1 Δpah1) to produce 497.3 mg/L of extracellular free fatty acids, and 1332.2 mg/L of total fatty acids. The platform strains generated by combinatorial metabolic engineering provide a basis for the future development of lipid-related cell factories.
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Extraction of polysaccharides from Urtica fissa and the hypoglycemic activity on HepG2 cells
YANG Wenjuan, SHUAI Zhaorui, GONG Pin, YAO Wenbo, LI Nan, ZHANG Jiayuan, CHENG Shirui
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 23-33.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034346
Abstract ( 9 )   HTML    PDF (4985KB) ( 1 )  
To study the hypoglycemic effect of polysaccharides from Urtica fissa (PUF) on HepG2 cells, the semi-biomimetic extraction process of PUF was optimized by single-factor experiments and response surfaces using Urtica fissa as raw materials.The hypoglycemic effect of PUF was determined by α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition experiments.The hypoglycemic effect of PUF was explored by constructing an insulin-resistant HepG2 cell (IR-HepG2) model and measuring the contents of triglyceride (TG), hexokinase (HK), pyruvate kinase (PK), and glycogen.Results showed that the yield of PUF was 7.04% when the pH1 was 3, the pH2 was 8, the solid-liquid ratio was 1∶16 (g∶mL), the extraction temperature was 65 ℃, and the extraction time was 75 min.α-Glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition experiments showed that PUF could exhibit hypoglycemic effects by inhibiting α-glucosidase and α-amylase.Cell experiments showed that PUF could reduce insulin resistance by affecting glucose consumption in IR-HepG2 cells, promote glycogen synthesis, and reduce TG content to regulate glycolipid metabolism by increasing the content of HK and PK, thereby playing a hypoglycemic effect.In summary, PUF has strong hypoglycemic activity, which provides a theoretical basis for its application to auxiliary functional foods for diabetic patients.
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Biosynthesis of perillyl alcohol using limonene catalyzed by cytochrome P450 in Pseudomonas putida F1
DI Xinyi, LIU Chunli, LIU Xiuxia, YANG Yankun, BAI Zhonghu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 34-40.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035167
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (2241KB) ( 1 )  
Perillyl alcohol is a kind of natural monocyclic terpene with wide applications in pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food industries. However, the process in the biosynthesis of perillyl alcohol using limonene suffers from low-selective and toxicity of substrate to the host strain. For this reason, we chose Pseudomonas putida F1, a strain with high environmental tolerance. We constructed a broad-host vector that self-amplifies and expresses the target gene in both E. coli and P. putida. CymAa and CymAb were overexpressed, selective hydroxylases origin from P. putida F1. The cytochrome P450 (CYP153A6), which specifically oxidize limonene to perillyl alcohol, was heterologously expressed and the concentration of limonene substrate added was adjusted for the biosynthesis of perillyl alcohol using both E. coli BL21 (DE3) and P. putida F1. Strain growth and perillyl alcohol yield were measured by UV-Vis spectrophotometer and GC-MS, respectively. Finally, we demonstrated that P. putida F1 was highly tolerant to limonene concentrations up to 10 mmol/L. The highest yield of 75.6 mg/L was obtained after 48 h of fermentation with the addition of 1 mmol/L limonene substrate, with a maximum conversion rate of 49.66%. This study narrows the range of limonene and provides a high tolerance fermentation host strain addition for biosynthesis of perillyl alcohol.
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Interaction mechanism of non-Saccharomyces yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae in mixed fermentation of Mijiu
LI Rou, LIU Yuan, SONG Kaikuo, XU Yan, WANG Dong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 41-47.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035342
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (4525KB) ( 8 )  
The combination of non-Saccharomyces yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae used in mixed fermentation is being considered as an effective strategy to improve the fermentation efficiency and flavor characteristics of Mijiu (rice wine), however the interaction mechanism of the two types of yeasts is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the interaction of two typical non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Saccharomycopsis fibuligera and Candida glabrata) and S. cerevisiae (Sc) during the mixed fermentation of Mijiu, including simultaneous and sequential inoculation fermentation, respectively. The mechanism of the yeast interaction was also discussed. The results showed that, regardless of the inoculation methods, both the non-Saccharomyces yeasts were inhibited significantly and their biomass decreased rapidly during the mixed fermentations when the Sc biomass reached about 107 CFU/mL, although different inoculation methods generated significantly different fermentation characteristics. However, the Sc growth was not significantly affected in the processes. Furthermore, the results of separate fermentation of yeasts without cell-cell contact showed that the contact of non-Saccharomyces yeast with Sc of a certain concentration (about 107 CFU/mL) was the main reason for the inhibition. The metabolites of Sc, alcohol and nutrients contents had little effect on the growth of non-Saccharomyces yeast.
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Effects of citrus fiber addition on dough properties and bread quality
HUANG Mengfan, WEN Jiping, ZHAN Xiaobin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 48-56.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033248
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (6531KB) ( 2 )  
Citrus fiber was added to refined wheat flour to study its mechanism of action on dough properties and bread quality. Results showed that the content of soluble dietary fiber, vitamin E, calcium, iron, sodium, and other biologically active substances in citrus fiber was higher than that in flour. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that the difference in material structure between citrus fiber and flour had changed the characteristics of mixed flour dough and bread quality to some extent. The increase in citrus fiber addition led to a decrease in the solvent retention force of the mixed powder and a decrease in the overall performance of the gluten protein. The increase of the dough viscosity increased the operating mechanical force, which was not conducive to dough processing and forming. The attenuation value and weakening degree increased, the powder quality index and stabilization time decreased, the quality of the mixed powder deteriorated, the maximum tensile resistance and the stretching ratio increased, the dough handling performance decreased, the fermentation height, gas production, and gas holding capacity decreased, and the gluten-starch matrix was damaged, resulting in a decrease in the fermentation volume of the bread. As the viscoelastic modulus increased, the tendency of the mixed dough to behave like a solid increased, and the hardness of the dough matrix increased. In a word, the changes in the floury properties, tensile properties, fermentation properties, and dynamic rheological properties of the dough resulted in a decrease in the specific volume of the mixed flour bread, a darker color, and a decrease in the edible quality. In conclusion, without any improvement, when the addition of citrus fiber was controlled within 4%, a healthy dietary bread rich in bioactive substances with acceptable quality could be produced.
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Screening and analysis of MYB and bHLH transcription factors associated with anthocyanin synthesis in Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs
FAN Wenguang, LI Baoyu, TIAN Hui, LI Xin, REN Haiwei, CAO Yingying, JIANG Xintong, CHAI Jiajing, CHEN Shaoqing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 57-66.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033270
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (16111KB) ( 1 )  
During the post-harvest storage of lily bulbs, the accumulation of anthocyanins causes the bulbs to turn violet-red, which in turn affects their value. Based on transcriptome data in Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs and analysis of anthocyanin-related transcription factors using bioinformatics technology, including sequence alignment, physicochemical property analysis, subcellular localization, phylogenetic relationship, and prediction of conserved domains, a total of 53 MYB transcription factors and 73 bHLH transcription factors were analyzed. The MYB classification results showed that 2 of them belonged to the 1R-MYB class, 44 of them belonged to the R2R3-MYB class, 3 of them belonged to the 3R-MYB class, and 1 of them belonged to the 4R-MYB class. Among 50 MYB unstable proteins showed hydrophilicity, and subcellular localization indicated that 48 MYBs were localized to the nucleus. All 73 bHLHs were unstable proteins, and 72 were hydrophilic. Subcellular localization showed that 58 bHLHs were localized in the nucleus. By constructing phylogenetic tree analysis with the model plant Arabidopsis MYB and bHLH transcription factors, the prediction of conserved domains, gene expression analysis, as well as correlation analysis between transcription factors and structural genes, 3 MYB genes and 1 bHLH genes that promote anthocyanin synthesis were preliminarily screened out from the bulbs of Lilium davidii var. unicolor. It provides theoretical support for further in-depth study of anthocyanin-regulated genes in Lilium davidii var. unicolor bulbs.
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Comparison of protein structure, physicochemical properties, and functional properties of four components in Schisandra chinensis
WANG Haidong, ZHANG Hongyin, CAO Jun, LI Guangzhe, YAN Mingming, ZHAO Daqing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 67-77.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033949
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (8886KB) ( 2 )  
Albumin, globulin, gliadin, and glutelin were extracted from the defatted powder of Schisandra chinensis by the four-step method of Osborne. The structure, physicochemical properties, and functional properties of the four fractional proteins were analyzed and compared. Results showed that the nutritional components of the four protein fractions were significantly different, the protein content of glutelin was the highest while the fat content was the lowest, and the protein extraction rate was the highest. There were differences in the subunit bands of 10-180 kDa and 3.3-33.0 kDa between reductive and non-reductive electrophoresis, and the molecular weight of gliadin was 5 kDa by ultra-low molecular weight electrophoresis. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed different surface structures and aggregation degrees of the four fractional proteins, and glutelin was the loosest. Fourier transform infrared absorption (FTIR) spectra confirmed the differences in the secondary structures of different protein components. In addition, the thermal stability, solubility, water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, emulsification and emulsification stability, and foamability and foam stability of glutelin were all optimal, revealing that the composition and structure of the four proteins were different, leading to differences in their physicochemical properties and functional properties.
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Activation of receptor for advanced glycation end products by histone to induce the inflammatory response
SUN Changjin, YANG Yan, LIU Guoyu, NAKANISHI Hideki
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 78-84.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035362
Abstract ( 2 )   HTML    PDF (6500KB) ( 1 )  
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is an immunoglobulin-like receptor and can bind to multiple ligands. Previous study showed that histone-bound macromolecules were phagocytosed by non-professional phagocytes in a RAGE dependent manner. However, histone has not been reported as a ligand for RAGE. Thus, the present study aims at assessing whether histone molecules can activate RAGE and its downstream signaling pathway. Microscopy and flow cytometry analyses were used to assess internalization of histone in mammalian cells. Cell viability was analyzed by Calcein-AM/propidium iodide staining assay. Cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assayed by using a 2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate fluorescent probe. The secretion of inflammatory cytokines was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Compared to RAGE knock out cells, wild-type mammalian cells efficiently internalize soluble histone molecules in lysosomes, and induce more cellular ROS production and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-TNF and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Notably, these effects were enhanced when histone molecules were attached to DNA. Taken together, histone can activate RAGE and its downstream proinflammation pathway.
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Bifidobacterium promotes the growth of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in inulin
GAO Wenyu, XIAO Yue, WANG Hongchao, ZHU Jinlin, LU Wenwei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 85-92.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035341
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (5297KB) ( 2 )  
Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is a commensal gut bacterium that accounts for about 5% of total bacteria. It is the main butyrate-producing bacterium and plays a vital role in maintaining human health. It has decreased greatly in patients with intestinal disorders and metabolic diseases. However, this species is extremely sensitive to oxygen, which limits the application as a probiotic. Thus, it is pressing to find an alternative strategy to improve its growth. It has established a co-culture system between F. prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium, the results demonstrated that Bifidobacterium could greatly improve the growth of F. prausnitzii and increase the content of butyrate. The 16S rRNA sequencing discovered that Bifidobacterium and inulin can increased the abundance of F. prausnitzii in fecal flora. It has provided a theoretical basis for the proliferation of F. prausnitzii in human intestines.
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Effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid on postharvest quality of longan fruit
ZHOU Tong, REN Xinru, HUANG Qiuting, CHEN Yuxian, WANG Yanhua, LI Xiaomei, LI Jing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 93-99.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033675
Abstract ( 4 )   HTML    PDF (1681KB) ( 2 )  
To investigate the effect of exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) on the storage and preservation of fresh longan after harvesting, the effects of different concentrations (5,10,15 mol/L) of GABA on the browning index, weight loss, colour difference, hardness, membrane permeability, pulp autolysis index, the contents of total phenols, flavonoids, titratable acids, and malondialdehyde of longan fruit skin were investigated. Results showed that different concentrations of GABA treatments could effectively reduce the browning index, weight loss, membrane permeability, flesh autolysis index, and malondialdehyde content of longan fruit peel, maintain the color difference of fruit peel, flesh hardness, and titratable acid content, and better promote the accumulation of total phenols and flavonoids, thus better maintaining the appearance and nutritional quality of longan. The best preservation effect was achieved in the 15 mmol/L GABA treatment group. After 6 days of storage at room temperature, the peel browning index, fruit weight loss, and flesh autolysis index of this treatment group were 24%, 33.3%, and 38.7% lower than those of the control group, while the membrane permeability and malondialdehyde content were 17.2% and 23.1% lower than those of the control group, respectively, while the peel L*, b* and flesh hardness were 1.16, 1.15, and 1.23 times higher than those of the control group, the total phenol and flavonoid contents were 1.33 and 1.52 times higher than those of the control, respectively, and the titratable acid content was 1/3 less than that of the control. This indicated that GABA treatment could reduce water loss from the fruit, reduce browning of the peel, delay autolysis of the flesh, maintain the integrity and stability of the cell membrane, maintain the color of the peel and hardness of the flesh, and thus effectively maintain the appearance and quality of fresh longan. At the same time, it could promote the accumulation of total phenols and flavonoids, and maintain a certain amount of titratable acid content, so that longan has better nutritional value and taste, and has a better preservation effect.
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Gene mining, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of trypsin from different sources in Komagataella phaffii GS115
HE Linman, NIU Chengtuo, LIU Guozheng, ZHENG Feiyun, LIU Chunfeng, WANG Jinjing, LI Qi
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 100-105.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035329
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (4895KB) ( 2 )  
Trypsin is a serine trypsin which is widely used in the leather making, food processing, biochemical testing, and pharmaceutical industries. This study aimed to obtain novel trypsin genes from different sources, heterologously expressed in Komagataella phaffii and characterized their enzymatic properties. Through gene mining strategy, potential trypsin genes were obtained from human, bovine, shrimp and Streptomyces fradiae and successfully expressed in the K. phaffii GS115 through pPIC9k vector. After purification and activation, the activities of human-derived trypsin (Homo sapiens trypsin, HST), bovine-derived trypsin (Bos taurus trypsin, BTT), shrimp-derived trypsin (Penaeus vannamei trypsin, PVT) and S. fradiae-derived trypsin (SFT) were 18.6, 12.3, 44.7, and 13.8 U/mL, respectively. The optimum temperatures of the above four types of trypsin were 20, 35, 40, and 45 ℃ while their optimum pH values were 9, 8.5, 8.5, and 9, respectively. Among four types of trypsin, SFT showed the best stability at alkaline environment since it was relatively stable at pH 9-11.
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Recombinant expression of limulus factor C in Expi293F for the detection of endotoxin by fluorescence method
KE Wenfeng, LI Shijie, ZHENG Menglin, BAI Zhonghu, YANG Yankun
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 106-111.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035264
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (2197KB) ( 2 )  
Tachypleus amebocyte lysate factor C, as a serine proteasogen, is highly sensitive to trace endotoxin. It can replace tachypleus amebocyte lysate reagent for endotoxin detection in the pharmaceutical industry. However, its recombinant expression is difficult, and the control of endotoxin in the environment is extremely demanding. Firstly, we cloned the full-length factor C from Tachypleus tridentatus and added the Flag tag and 6×His tag at the N-terminal and C-terminal. Secondly, we replaced the original factor C signal peptide with the secreted signal peptide in the mammalian cell expression vector. The recombinant plasmid was transfected into human embryonic kidney cell Expi293F for suspension culture, and the supernatant was harvested after 7 days of fermentation. The Western Blot detection protein was consistent with the predicted size of 128 kDa. It had the ability to bind with endotoxin and cut the fluorescent substrate after binding. In this study, we successfully expressed the full-length factor C with biological activity in human embryonic kidney cell Expi293F for the first time. This expression system produced 19.18 mg/L factor C, which was 113% higher than that of DING in insect cell SF9. This method has guiding significance for the subsequent development of low-cost endotoxin detection kits.
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Effect of temperature on physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds, and microbial community during broad bean paste fermentation
LI Xiaoyang, WANG Yiheng, NIU Chengtuo, ZHENG Feiyun , WANG Jinjing, LIU Chunfeng, LI Qi
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 112-118.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035206
Abstract ( 10 )   HTML    PDF (13166KB) ( 10 )  
Temperature plays important roles in broad bean paste fermentation, however, the information of how temperature influenced the quality of broad bean paste is still lacking. This study aimed to elaborate the effect of temperature on physicochemical parameters, flavor compounds, biogenic amines, and microbial community composition during broad bean paste fermentation through preparing three fermentation groups fermented at different temperatures. The results showed that higher temperature led to higher concentrations of amino nitrogen, reducing sugar, free amino acids and volatile flavor compounds and lower abundance of foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Moreover, higher total acid and biogenic amine concentrations were observed in samples fermented at higher temperatures. After fermentation, the concentrations of amino nitrogen, reducing sugar, volatile flavor compounds and biogenic amines in 40 ℃ constant fermentation group were 1.02 g/100 g, 12.07 g/100 g, 25.65 mg/kg, and 54.10 mg/100 g, respectively, while the corresponding values in natural fermentation group were 0.95 g/100 g, 11.70 g/100 g, 16.74 mg /kg, and 43.52 mg/100 g, respectively. Therefore, higher temperature was favorable to accelerate the matureness of broad bean paste during fermentation, but the risk of total acid and biogenic amines should be avoided through further fermentation technique optimization.
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Effects of mixed fermentation on surface activity index and antioxidant activity of tea saponin in camellia meal
HAN Shuaipeng, ZENG Wanxiang, WU Danhui, LAN Xiuquan, HUA Tao, CHENG Jianhua, ZHOU Xinhui, ZHOU Xin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 119-125.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033752
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (2425KB) ( 2 )  
Tea saponin in camellia meal was extracted by water extraction, alcohol extraction, Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) fermentation, Lactobacillus casei (LC) fermentation, and mixed bacteria (LP+LC,1∶1) fermentation. The differences in main components in the extracts were compared and analyzed, and the surface activity indexes and antioxidant properties of tea saponin extracts extracted by water extraction, alcohol extraction, and mixed fermentation were determined. Results showed that the content of tea saponin in the mixed fermentation broth was (21.86±0.39) mg/mL, which was significantly higher than that in water extract, alcohol extract, and single fermentation broth (P<0.05), the contents of polysaccharides, polyphenols, flavonoids, and proteins in each extract were significantly different. Compared with tea saponin extracted by water and alcohol, tea saponin extracted by mixed bacteria fermentation had higher purity (75.2%) and extraction yield (14.12%), lower surface tension (39.2 mN/m), better foaming property (128%), and stability (96.9%). The scavenging ability of mixed fermentation tea saponin on DPPH free radicals and ABTS cationic free radicals was better than that of water tea saponin but lower than that of alcohol tea saponin. In terms of hydroxyl radical scavenging ability and reducing power, fermented tea saponin was superior to the other two, and the test result was comparable to ascorbic acid at the concentration of 4 mg/mL. The results indicated that microbial fermentation had a good application prospect in the industrial extraction of tea saponin.
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Effects of phospholipid content on the palatability and bacterial stability of oral-release probiotic mouth incense pills
ZHANG Kui, ZHU Jingyao, CAI Jibao, MA Xiaojuan, LIU Wei, ZOU Liqiang, XIE Youfa
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 126-131.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.036937
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (4213KB) ( 4 )  
Using gelatin as wall material and coconut oil as core material, probiotic mouth incense pills loaded with Lactobacillus plantarum P9 were prepared by high precision concentric dropping pill technology. The appearance, diameter, and texture of probiotic mouth incense pills with different contents of phospholipids in the core material were analyzed, and the effects of adding different contents of phospholipids in the core material on the melting rate of mouth incense pills in the mouth, processing, storage and the stability of probiotics in the simulated oral digestion process were investigated. The results showed that the addition of phospholipid had no significant effect on the diameter, hardness, and elasticity of probiotic mouth incense pills, and the increase of phospholipid addition could significantly accelerate the melting rate of solid lipid core in oral digestive fluid. In addition, the addition of phospholipids also increased the bacterial activity retention rates of probiotics during processing and storage (25℃, 12 months), which were 85.4%(phospholipid addition amount 1.5%) and 23.4% (phospholipid addition amount 1%), respectively. Therefore, proper amount of phospholipids can be added in the preparation of probiotic mouth incense pills to obtain better bacterial retention rate and better sensory properties. This study provides a theoretical basis for the development of probiotic food with high probiotic loading efficiency and good taste.
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Cadmium-lowing properties and mechanism of a strain of Staphylococcus carnosus
DONG Huayu, WANG Ranran, QIU Mengzhen, LI Guomin, XU Junnan, LI Jun, FAN Mingtao, WEI Xinyuan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 132-137.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035240
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (5632KB) ( 2 )  
This paper aimed to investigate the cadmium-lowering properties and mechanisms of Staphylococcus carnosus 846 with high cadmium tolerance. The effects of pH, Cd2+ concentration, bacterial concentration and other metal ions on its cadmium-lowering ability were analyzed, and the mechanism of cadmium-decrease was investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and mid-infrared Fourier spectroscopy. The results showed that the cadmium-lowering efficiency of the strain reached the maximum at pH 5, with the Cd2+ concentration for 50 mg/L and the concentration of the bacterium for 1 g/L. The presence of other metal ions such as Mg2+, Pb2+ and Zn2+ reduced the Cd2+ lowering effect of the strain, while the presence of Cr6+ enhanced its Cd2+ lowering ability. The presence of Cd2+ mainly caused the cell surface wrinkling, rough and even cell rupture. The EDS results demonstrated the Cd2+ accumulated mainly on the cell surface. The —OH, —CH2—, CH2/CH3, —C—OH and PO groups on the cell surface were involved in the Cd2+ lowering process of S. carnosus 846. Therefore, S. carnosus 846 were demonstrated having cadmium reduction potential, which provided a basis for the development of cadmium-lowering lactic acid bacteria.
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Effects of mixed fermentation of Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Saccharomyces cerevisiae on the quality of blueberry wine
TANG Chuqi, GU Qiuya, ZHOU Jianli, Li Shuaijinyi, LI Xuanchen, DING Hexia, YANG Guohua, YU Xiaobin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 138-144.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035413
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3681KB) ( 2 )  
Blueberry wine-making can solve the storage problem of fresh blueberry, and the mixed fermentation of various yeasts can make blueberry wine show more complex characteristics. In this study, a Metschnikowia pulcherrima and a commercial Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected, the experiments of small-scale blueberry wine fermentation were carried out by sequential inoculation and simultaneous inoculation, respectively. pH differential method and GC-MS for analysis of the physical and chemical indexes, color, functional active components, antioxidant capacity, and flavor substances of blueberry wines with different fermentation methods to comprehensively evaluate the quality of fermented blueberry wine. The results showed that the ethanol content of mixed fermentation with sequential inoculation decreased by 0.8% compared with that of single fermentation with S. cerevisiae. Introduction of M. pulcherrima could play a positive role in the color of blueberry wine and increase the total phenol content of 2.21% and the total ester content of 134.63%. Among them, the contents of ethyl isovalerate, ethyl acetate, and isoamyl acetate were significantly increased, which contributes to the fruity and floral aroma of blueberry wine. Therefore, M. pulcherrima has good application potential in improving the quality of blueberry wine.
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Nutritional value of mulberry female and male silkworm moths before and after mating
LIN Bimin, ZHONG Yangsheng, PAN Ziwen, ZHANG Ying, YAN Huichao, CHEN Fangyan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 145-152.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033904
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (1532KB) ( 1 )  
To understand the nutrient composition of mulberry silkworm moths, their contents of protein, fatty acids, and amino acids were analyzed before and after mating for males and females respectively. The evaluation of the nutritional value of 9 Fu silkworm moths was based on their contents of crude protein, crude fat, and unsaturated fatty acids, indices of atherogenicity (IA) and thrombogenicity (IT), amino acid and chemical scores, essential amino acid index (EAAI), nutrition index (NI), and biological value (BV). Results revealed the abundant contents of amino acids and unsaturated fatty acids of the silkworm moth. The protein content (21.6%, fresh weight), total amino acid content (46.94 g/100 g), essential amino acid content (15.86%), EAAI (99.33), NI (21.45), and BV (96.57) of the female silkworm moths before mating were the highest of 4 kinds of silkworm moths. They were also rich in sweet, pharmacodynamic, and branched-chain amino acids, and had a low crude fat content (7.11%, fresh weight) but a higher ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to fatty acids. Their IA (0.21) and IT (0.14) were also lower than those of the male. Therefore, female silkworm moths before mating can be considered an ideal protein resource. The contents of crude fat (24.46%, fresh weight), unsaturated fatty acids (44.31 g/100 g) and α-linolenic acid (19.37 g/100 g) of the male silkworm moths after mating were higher than those of the female, but their IA (0.28) and IT (0.22) were lower, thus making them a high-quality raw material for the extraction of unsaturated fatty acids. This study provides a theoretical basis for developing the use of mulberry silkworm moths in food products.
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Effects of wheat oligopeptides and its combination with soybean oligopeptides and pea oligopeptides on protein expression in C2C12 skeletal muscle cells stimulated by TNF-α in vitro
CHENG Gaiping, LI Mingliang, LIU Jing, XU Miao, LI Ke, YAN Jiuming, REN Wei, QIN Xiuyuan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 153-158.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034622
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2339KB) ( 2 )  
This study aimed to investigate the effects of the complex of wheat oligopeptides, soybean oligopeptides, and pea oligopeptides on the protein expression of C2C12 skeletal muscle cells stimulated by TNF-α and preliminarily explore the mechanism.C2C12 cells were treated with a final concentration of 25 ng/mL TNF-α for 4 days to establish the TNF-α stimulation model.The safe dose of wheat oligopeptides, soybean oligopeptides, and pea oligopeptides on C1C12 cells was determined by the CCK-8 method.The protein expressions were detected with different proportions of complex peptides, including myosin-related indexes (MyoD, MyoG, and MyHC), the muscle atrophy-related indexes (TRIM63 and MAFbx) of the proteasome system, Akt, mTOR, and their phosphorylated proteins.Results showed that compared with the control group, the protein expressions of MyoD, MyoG, and MyHC in TNF-α-stimulated C2C12 cells were decreased, MyHC was significantly decreased, and the expressions of MAFbx and TRIM63 were significantly increased.The phosphorylation levels of Akt and mTOR were significantly reduced, but all indexes were alleviated after treatment with peptides, and the ratio of wheat oligopeptides to soybean oligopeptides+pea oligopeptides of 1∶3 was the most effective.The combination of wheat oligopeptides to soybean oligopeptides+pea oligopeptides at the ratio of 1∶3 can effectively improve the reduction of myoprotein content in C2C12 cells caused by TNF-α, reduce protein degradation, and promote protein synthesis by regulating the expression of E3 ubiquitin ligase and improving the protein phosphorylation level of Akt/mTOR.
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Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene combined with biological antistaling agent on fresh-keeping of fresh-cut cabbage
LI Jinjin, YANG Junxiang, ZHAO Nan, WU Di, JIA Xiaoyu, ZHANG Peng, LI Jiangkuo
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 159-167.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033724
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (2470KB) ( 1 )  
To explore the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) combined with biological antistaling agents on the storage and fresh-keeping effect of fresh-cut cabbage, the purpose of this paper is to provide a method of fresh-keeping of fresh-cut cabbage. In this experiment, cabbage was used as experimental material, fresh-cut cabbage was treated with a biological antistaling agent (papain+bromelain+ε-polylysine), 1-MCP, and 1-MCP+biological antistaling agent. Distilled water treatment was used as control, vacuum packaging was carried out after treatment, and the sensory quality, nutritional index, physiological index, senescence index, and related enzymes of fresh-cut cabbage stored at 4 ℃ for 12 days were determined. Results showed that 1-MCP + biological antistaling agent could delay the yellowing and decay of fresh-cut cabbage, slow down the decrease of vitamin C, reduce sugar and chlorophyll, control respiratory intensity and ethylene production rate at a low level, inhibit the increase of relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde content, and inhibit the decrease of catalase (CAT) activity and the increase of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD) activity. Biological antistaling agent, 1-MCP, 1-MCP combined with biological antistaling agent treatment can play a fresh-cut role in fresh-cut cabbage, 1-MCP combined with biological antistaling agent treatment can better maintain the quality, the fresh-keeping effect is better.
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Effects of wolfberry powder on gel quality of silver carp surimi
ZHENG Zhaomin, XU Qiaoling, ZHENG Hongli, LIU Junchen, SHI Yongqi, YAO Chunxia, XIAO Chunyuan, WANG Lan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 168-176.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033645
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (6049KB) ( 1 )  
To improve the gel properties and quality of silver carp surimi, the effects of wolfberry powder (WP) with different concentrations on water holding capacity, cooking loss rate, whiteness value, moisture distribution, gel properties, microstructure, sensory evaluation, and odor characteristics of silver carp surimi gel were investigated. Results showed that the water holding capacity, hardness, chewiness, and gel strength of surimi gel first increased and then decreased with the increase of the WP content, and reached the maximum when the addition amount was 0.5%, which were 78.55%, (2 716.77±75.76) g, (2 185.15±32.46) g, and 1 087 g·cm, respectively. However, the cooking loss rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of WP content, and when the additional amount of WP was 0.5%, the cooking loss rate was the smallest at 7.49%. The proportion of free water in the surimi gel was reduced and the proportion of immobile water was increased, indicating that the surimi gel could retain more water after the addition of WP. When WP was added at the optimal addition amount of 0.5%, only bound water and immobile water were detected in the surimi gel, but no free water was detected. The addition of a proper amount of WP could enhance the network structure of surimi gel and make it more compact and uniform. The whiteness value and color score of surimi gel were decreased with the addition of WP, but the color was generally acceptable with the optimal addition of 0.5%. Additionally, sensory evaluation and electronic nose analysis showed that the flavor quality of surimi gel could be significantly improved when WP was added at the optimal addition amount of 0.5%. This study provides a theoretical basis for the production of high-quality surimi products.
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Heterologous expression of a chitin deacetylase from Rhizopus stolonifer and its synergistic hydrolysis with a chitinase
ZHANG Qiao, LI Yongcheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 177-183.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.037099
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (2656KB) ( 2 )  
Chitin deacetylase (CDA) is the key enzyme in converting chitin to chitosan. However, the reported CDAs with high activity are very limited nowadays. To obtain a high-efficiency CDA and improve its biotransformation efficiency on chitin, a CDA from R. stolonifer was cloned, expressed, and purified, and RsCDA1 was obtained. Characterization of RsCDA1 and its synergistic action with a chitinase from V. harveyi (VhChit2) on the hydrolysis of chitin were investigated. Results indicated that RsCDA1 had a specific activity of 5.2 U/mg, and exhibited the maximum activity at 45 °C and pH 6.5. RsCDA1 was relatively stable when the temperature was lower than 40 °C and the pH was in the range of 6.5-8.0. The activity of RsCDA1 was promoted by 1 mmol/L of Ca2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Ba2+ and Co2+, and it was inhibited by 1 mmol/L of Ni2+ and Cu2+. Additionally, RsCDA1 exhibited a good synergistic degradation and deacetylation of chitin with VhChit2. When the mixture of RsCDA1 and VhChit2 (molar concentration ratio of 10: 1) was used to hydrolyze chitin (20 mg/mL) at 50 ℃ and pH 6.5 for 2 h, the degrees of synergy on chitinase and CDA reached 120.3% and 175.6%, respectively. The degree of deacetylation of chitin synergistically treated with RsCDA1 and VhChit2 increased to 35.3% from 27.5% that alone treated with RsCDA1. Thus, RsCDA1 has potential application in the biotransformation of chitin.
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Study on extraction process optimization and application of cyclic adenosine monophosphate from jujube
GONG Pin, LONG Hui, WANG Xiaojuan, YANG Wenjuan, CHANG Xiangna, CHEN Fuxin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 184-190.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033745
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (8793KB) ( 3 )  
This paper aimed to improve the utilization value of jujube and develop products for deep processing. This research examined the extraction method and application of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) from jujube. Using a single-factor experiment, the effects of three parameters on the yield of cAMP were investigated, including solid-liquid ratio, extraction time, and ethanol concentration. The optimal conditions for each ingredient for the highest yield of cAMP were found, and the resulting extract was used to formulate a cream. Using the software Design-Expert V8.0.6 and a central combination design, the experimental group of response surfaces was created. The optimal extraction method for cAMP was determined by establishing a model based on the experimental data, which was 1∶25.42 (g∶mL) of the ratio of solids-liquids, 63.51 min of extraction time, and 61.63% of the concentration of ethanol, and the cream stability was evaluated. Under the optimal extraction conditions, the yield of cAMP was 189.07 μg/g, and a stable cream was formulated with the extract.
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Effects of preharvest calcium chloride and sugar alcohol calcium spraying on fruit quality and storage performance of ‘Fengtang’ plum
WU Yunxing, DONG Xiaoqing, LI Yue, CHEN Hong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 191-196.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032299
Abstract ( 4 )   HTML    PDF (1708KB) ( 1 )  
To explore the effect of preharvest calcium spraying on the quality of ‘Fengtang’ plum, the research used ‘Fengtang’ plum as the material, spraying 1%, 1.5%, and 2% (mass fraction) calcium chloride and 800, 1 200, and 1 600 times diluted sugar alcohol calcium solution before harvest, the fruits were harvested at eight-maturity, at (4±1) ℃, and (90±5)% of the relative humidity. Results showed that after storage for day 0, spraying 1.5% calcium chloride before harvest could increase the single fruit weight, vertical and horizontal diameter, and fruit shape index of ‘Fengtang’ plum fruits. After 60 days of storage, the treatment sprayed with 1.5% calcium chloride before harvest had the lowest weight loss rate, the hardness decreased, the polyphenol oxidase activity showed the lowest increase, and the fruits kept high total soluble solids, titratable acidity, total phenol content, and peroxidase activity. Spraying 1.5% calcium chloride before harvest is beneficial to the storage and preservation of ‘Fengtang’ plum fruits. The research could provide a reference for the postharvest storage and preservation of ‘Fengtang’ plum fruits.
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Isolation and antioxidant properties of active peptides from dry corned beef
ZHANG Yingyang, CHEN Wentao, ZOU Ping, XU Ying
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 197-205.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033220
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (5646KB) ( 2 )  
This study evaluated the antioxidant and antibacterial activity of dry-cured beef at different periods and identified five short peptides with good antioxidant activity. The crude peptide content was found to increase by 17.8% after curing compared to uncured by hydrochloric acid extraction method. The amino acid contents of crude peptide solution after three different treatments (untreated, pepsin, and trypsin) were 29.81 mg/mL, 64.199 mg/mL, and 258.111 mg/mL, respectively. The circular dichroism spectrum showed that crude peptides had absorption bands around 195 nm and 215 nm and a weak absorption band around 205 nm. The average molecular weight distribution of the peptide chains tested by the ninhydrin method ranged from 19.26 kDa to 27.02 kDa. The antioxidant capacity was determined by detecting the scavenging rates of DPPH free radicals, superoxide anion radicals, ABTS cationic radicals, and hydroxyl radicals. Results showed that the dry-cured beef had good antioxidant activity, and the scavenging rates of the crude peptide (1 mg/mL) were 78.33%, 81.05%, 26.89%, and 36.92% for the four free radicals, respectively. By stability test, the antioxidant capacity was strongest at 0% NaCl, 60 ℃, and pH 7.0. The crude peptides also had antibacterial ability against Escherichia coli O517, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans, which could reach 75.45%, 48.53%, and 44% at 5 mg/mL, respectively. After two isolations and purifications by SephadexG-25 and SephadexG-15, respectively, five peptides were found to have good antioxidant activity, namely DALKKK, FDGDF, HLPSDF, FLSDH, and TPTDWK. Therefore, dry corned beef products may promote human health in terms of antioxidant as well as bacterial inhibition.
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Effect of wheat flour blending on quality of wet-fresh noodles
WEN Yaqing, ZHANG Jian, ZHANG Kun, WANG Gang, ZHAO Yang, AN Yanxia, LI Mengqin, ZHANG Weifeng, REN Xiujuan, JIA Huating
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 206-212.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034121
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (2444KB) ( 1 )  
To improve the quality of wet-fresh noodles and study the influence of flour blending on the quality of wet-fresh noodles, the ordinary wheat widely planted in the Central Plains was compounded with four high-quality wheats at home and abroad in a certain proportion, and the flour quality traits and gluten protein secondary structure after blending were determined, and the moisture distribution, texture, and sensory characteristics of wet-fresh noodles were examined. Results showed that the gluten index and L* value of wheat flour significantly improved after flour blending. The sum of the proportions of ordered structures α-helical and β-fold in the secondary structure of gluten protein was significantly higher than that of the original powder. The relative content of strongly bound water of the prepared wet-fresh noodles increased significantly, and the weak bound water decreased significantly. The wet-fresh noodles′ texture properties and the sensory score of blending flour were better than those produced from the original flour. It was believed that the addition of high-quality wheat flour could change the secondary structure of gluten protein and the moisture distribution of wet-fresh noodles by changing the gluten protein components, thereby improving the texture characteristics and sensory score of fresh wet noodles. The study will provide a theoretical reference for the special flour for wet-fresh noodles of medium-gluten wheat flour.
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Structural characteristics of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide and its ameliorative effect on liver injury induced by excessive exercise in mice
REN Donggen, GONG Ting, WANG Lijuan, GUAN Tao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 213-223.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033543
Abstract ( 1 )   HTML    PDF (4051KB) ( 1 )  
The structural characteristics and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Ophiopogon japonicus were analyzed to explore its improving effect on liver injury in overtraining mice. Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharide (POJ) was obtained by water extraction and alcohol precipitation. The monosaccharide composition of POJ was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography, and its characteristic groups were inferred by infrared spectroscopy. A model of liver injury in mice with excessive exercise fatigue was constructed to evaluate the protection mechanism of POJ. Results showed that the yield of POJ was 5.4%, the average molecular weight of POJ was 19 315 Da, and the number average molecular weight was 17 005 Da, which was composed of glucose, mannose, galactose, and a small amount of xylose. The molar ratio of the four monosaccharides was 4.35∶5.21∶1.34∶1, and its anomeric carbon was β-configuration. POJ had strong free radical scavenging ability, and the free radical scavenging ability had a significant positive correlation with polysaccharide concentration. The results of the liver injury model showed that POJ could significantly increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes in liver tissue, and reduce malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl. It also reduced the content of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. The pathological structure map showed that POJ had the effect of repairing liver cell damage. In addition, it was also found that POJ could activate the adenylate-activated protein kinase (AMPKα)/nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) signaling pathway and significantly increase AMPKα, Nrf2, HO-1, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase mRNA expression. Studies have shown that POJ can activate the AMPK/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway, promote the expression of downstream antioxidant enzyme genes, and improve antioxidant capacity, thereby alleviating oxidative damage to the liver caused by excessive exercise fatigue. This study could provide a theoretical basis for the development and application of Ophiopogon japonicus polysaccharides in medicine and sports functional food.
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Study on taste characteristics of Kung pao chicken
ZHAO Jinmei, ZHOU Xingtao, LI Na, LIN Shengchao, LIU Ping
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 224-231.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033619
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (4195KB) ( 8 )  
To explore the taste characteristics of Kung pao chicken, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) were used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the organic acids, flavor nucleotides, and free amino acids of Kung pao chicken, and the characteristic taste substances of Kung pao chicken were determined by taste activity value (TAV). Results showed that 6 organic acids, 3 flavor nucleotides, 6 inorganic ions, 17 free amino acids and capsaicin were detected in all five Kung pao chickens (A1-A5), and dihydro capsaicin was not detected. Among them, the A4 sample contained higher organic acids and inorganic ions, and its flavor nucleotides and free amino acids were higher than the other four samples, which were 1 392.65 mg/kg and 10 567.80 mg/kg, respectively. Otherwise, the TAV values of 12 flavoring components, including fumaric acid, malic acid, succinic acid, acetic acid, 5′-inosine acid, capsaicin, sodium ion, potassium ion, chloride ion, phosphate ion, glutamic acid, and histidine, were all above than 1, indicating that they were characteristic taste substances of Kung pao chicken and were crucial to the overall taste of the product.
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Optimization of fermentation process for abscisic acid production by Botrytis cinerea
ZHANG Jun, ZUO Jianying, JING Feijiang, CHEN Gang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 232-238.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.037279
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (7548KB) ( 2 )  
Abscisic acid (S-ABA) is one of the five major plant growth regulators, widely used in modern agriculture. It has many functions such as enhancing plant resistance to stress, preserving flowers and fruits, promoting fruit color change, increasing sugar, and reducing acid. Multiple plant pathogenic fungi can be synthesized, and Botrytis cinerea is widely used for production. This article uses response surface methodology to investigate the effects of key nutritional and process conditions such as carbon nitrogen ratio, initial pH, CaCO3 content, stirring speed, ventilation conditions, and inoculation amount on the morphology and S-ABA production of B. cinerea. The optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: Carbon nitrogen ratio of 25, stirring intensity of 535 r/min, initial pH of 5.1, inoculation amount of 11%, ventilation rate of 1.0 vvm, and optimal mycelium ball size of 0.95 mm. Under this condition, the production of S-ABA increased by approximately 8.23%.
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Determination of nutrients and antioxidant activities of different varieties of matcha and their quality evaluation using principal component analysis
WU Gang, MA Yunlong, XU Mingchen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 239-246.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033644
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (1944KB) ( 7 )  
To study the quality of different varieties of matcha in related basic physicochemical indicators, nutrients, and antioxidant activities, 8 different varieties of matcha (5 domestic varieties and 3 foreign varieties) were used as the research objects. The differences in moisture, water extract, particle size (D60), ash, soluble protein, soluble sugar, theanine, tea polyphenols, catechins, caffeine, and in vitro antioxidant activities in different varieties of matcha were systematically compared, and the matcha quality evaluation model was established through principal component analysis (PCA). A total of 2 principal components were extracted from the results of PCA, and the cumulative variance contribution rate reached 82.5%. The moisture, particle size (D60), and ash content of all matcha met the requirements of GB/T 34778—2017 Matcha. The contents of water extract, soluble protein, soluble sugar, theanine, tea polyphenols, epigallocatechin gallate, and caffeine in different varieties of domestic matcha were significantly higher than those in foreign matcha samples (P<0.05). Moreover, the “Longjing 43” variety of matcha had the strongest antioxidant activity in vitro and the highest comprehensive quality score.
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Acid reduction technology and flavor evaluation of Huangjiu based on membrane separation and resin adsorption
CHEN Chen, XIE Haiteng, LAI Minhui, JIN Qingqing, ZHOU Jiandi, QIAN Bin, JIANG Yujian
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 247-253.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035286
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (1767KB) ( 7 )  
In this study, the parameters of membrane separation pretreatment were optimized, and the feasibility of reducing the acidity of Huangjiu by the method of membrane separation-resin adsorption was investigated. Then, the flavor of Huangjiu after reducing acidity was evaluated. The results showed that under the Huangjiu temperature of 25 ℃ and the operating pressure of 1.0 MPa, the acid-reducing rate of high-acid Huangjiu after D354 resin adsorption reached 47.0%, 53.8%, and 68.1% respectively, after being pretreated with different membranes with a molecular weight of 200 Da, 1 000 Da, and 2 000 Da. A total of 32 volatile substances were detected in the Huangjiu samples after reducing acidity. The content of volatile substances in the 200 Da (1 975.89 mg/L) and 1 000 Da (1 919.80 mg/L) membrane pretreatment groups were significantly higher than group without membrane pretreatment (1 727.04 mg/L). In addition, the hierarchical cluster analysis showed that higher flavor similarity between 1 000 Da and 2 000 Da groups. Eleven volatile substances with significant differences between different deacidification Huangjiu groups were obtained based on the results of OPLS-DA combined the variable importance in projection. Using 1 000 Da membrane pretreatment combined with 10% filling ratio D354 resin adsorption to reduce the acidity of 50 L high-acid Huangjiu. The results showed that the total deacidification rate reached 57.7% and the retention rates of amino acid nitrogen and volatile components were 98.8% and 80%, respectively. In summary, this study provides a new perspective and application scenario for the physical deacidification of high-acid Huangjiu.
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Screening and identification of polyphosphate kinase based on soil metagenome
ZHANG Suping, GAO Senhao, LI Wangxinyue, ZHANG Jinhao, YANG Shiyun, YOU Zhongyu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 254-261.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.037198
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (6530KB) ( 2 )  
Polyphosphate kinase (PPK) is a class of phosphotransferase, which can catalyze the transfer reaction of phosphate groups between ATP and polyphosphates, and can be used for ATP regeneration in biocatalytic processes. The ATP regeneration system based on PPK has attracted extensive attention in the field of biocatalysis. The aim of this study is to utilize sequence driven metagenomic technology to explore novel PPK genes from soil metagenomes. A pair of degenerate primers was designed based on the conserved region of reported PPKs. PCR amplification was performed using soil metagenomic DNA as a template. A PPK encoding sequence from Serratia marcescens was obtained. The gene had a length of 2 064 bp, and encoded a protein (named SmPPK) composed of 687 amino acids. Multiple sequence alignment showed that SmPPK had high sequence identity (87.9%) with PPK from Escherichia coli. Phylogenetic tree analysis revealed that SmPPK and PPKs from Serratia nevei, Gibbsiella quercinecans were on the same branch and belonged to the PPK1 family. The homologous modeling results indicated that SmPPK showed a typical L-shaped structure with four domains. Its active centers were mainly composed of His433, Asp468, His590, and Glu621. The SmPPK gene was cloned into the vector pET28a and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3). The SDS-PAGE showed a significant band at 80 kDa, which was consistent with the theoretical molecular weight. Enzyme activity detection showed that SmPPK can achieve ATP synthesis in the presence of sodium polyphosphate, with a maximum yield of 46.5%. The ATP regeneration system constructed by SmPPK was coupled with prodigiosin condensation enzyme PigC, and the synthesis of prodigiosin analogues was successfully realized. This study provides a new enzyme source for constructing ATP regeneration system for ATP dependent biocatalytic processes.
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Synergistic fermentation of corn starch syrup residue by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bacillus subtilis
LI Shaolei, CHEN Xusheng, ZHANG Hongjian, WANG Liang, ZHANG Jianhua
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 262-267.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035453
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (2755KB) ( 1 )  
Microbial fermentation can improve the flavor and eliminate the nutritional inhibitors, thus realizing the high value utilization of corn starch sugar residue. In this study, Lactobacillus acidophilus was used for solid-state fermentation of the syrup residue. The viable count of L. acidophilus was 5.2×108 CFU/g. Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were used in a synergistic fermentation process, which increased the viable count of L. acidophilus to 1.5×109 CFU/g, 2.86 times higher than that of single strain fermentation. The double strain solid-state fermentation process was optimized, and when the inoculation volume of the seed liquid was 7.8%, the moisture content was 72%, and the initial pH was 7.26, the viable count of L. acidophilus reached 5.05×109 CFU/g, 3.37 times higher than before optimization. The components, flavor, and taste of the products from single and double strain fermentations were analyzed and tested. The results showed that fermentation could improve the nutritional value, reduce the phytic acid content, and increase the antioxidant capacity. Double strain fermentation produced a higher count of probiotics, reduced off-flavors, increased nutty and fatty aromas, and improved the mouthfeel.
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Effects of different improvers on quality of frozen dough and noodles
DU Xianfeng, ZHOU Zhou, CAO Meng, WANG Xuefei, WANG Baogang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 268-274.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033812
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (3293KB) ( 1 )  
Taking frozen noodle dough as the experimental object, the freezable water content, steady-state-rheological properties, water separation rate, and texture properties of frozen noodle dough with different additional amounts of sodium stearoyl lactylate, xanthan gum, gluten, and vitamin C were studied. Results showed that the addition of different amounts of improvers could significantly reduce the freezable water content of frozen noodle dough and enhance the resistance to deformation of the dough. The water separation rate of wheat flour was significantly reduced in a certain range, and the hardness, elasticity, and chewiness of noodles changed significantly with the increase of the improvers. Results showed that the quality of frozen dough and the final product of frozen dough noodles could be better improved by adding a certain amount of improvers.
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Analysis of flavor characteristics in light-flavor Baijiu from two fermentation rounds by chemosensory technique
WU Lan, HAN Ying, ZHEN Pan, SHI Binbin, WANG Jiabao, CHEN Shuang, XU Yan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 275-282.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035355
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (12245KB) ( 3 )  
The aroma sensory and aroma components characteristics of light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha and Ercha were analyzed by combining quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA), gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and headspace solid phase microextraction with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS). Sensory analysis revealed that the aroma sensory characteristics of light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha were mainly fruity, sweet, grain and floral, with Ercha being mainly sour and mellow. Furthermore, 119 aroma compounds in 60 batches of light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha and Ercha were accurately quantified, and 48 important aroma-active compounds with the odor activity value (OAV)>1 were found by the OAV analysis. Then 18 aroma compounds with important effects on the aroma characteristics of light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha and Ercha were determined through the comparison of OAV of aroma-active compounds and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). Finally, partial least squares regression (PLSR) was used to explore the relationship between the sensory characteristics and the aroma-active compounds of light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha and Ercha. The results showed that the important aroma compounds correlated with the sensory characteristics of Dacha were ethyl octanoate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, ethyl cinnamate, isobutanol, ethyl lactate, geosmin and 1-octene-3-one, and the important aroma compounds correlated with the sensory characteristics of Ercha were benzaldehyde, acetal, γ-nonlactone, acetaldehyde, isovaleraldehyde, ethyl isovalerate, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. The cognition of the flavor characteristics light-flavor Baijiu with Dacha and Ercha through this study could provide guidance for the production control and lay a theoretical basis on Baijiu blending.
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Determination of carbon stable isotope ratio of ascorbic acid in acerola cherry powder by liquid chromatography-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry
WANG Daobing, FENG Di, CAO Cuifeng, ZHONG Qiding, ZHAI Penggui, WU Zhuying, YUE Hongwei, TONG Ling, ZHANG Yan, HONG Yuling, ZHANG Hongxia, XU Sheng, ZHANG Luoqi
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 283-287.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035066
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (2205KB) ( 1 )  
An analytical method for the detection of ascorbic acid δ13C value by liquid chromatography-stable isotope ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) was established to identify the authenticity of the natural source of ascorbic acid in acerola cherry powder. Ascorbic acid in the sample was separated and purified by liquid chromatography, and the optimized chromatographic conditions were that Syncronis C18 (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5 mm) column was used, the mobile phase was the aqueous-sulfuric acid solution (90∶10, volume ratio), the flow rate was 0.250 mL/min, the column temperature was 30 ℃, the injection volume was 10 mL, and all the targets were oxidized to CO2 gas by LC-IsoLink, and finally entered the stable isotope mass spectrometer in gaseous form. The δ13C of ascorbic acid in the sample was directly detected, and the results of this method were stable and accurate. Results showed that the distribution range of natural ascorbic acid δ13C value was -25.00‰--22.01‰, and the distribution of synthetic ascorbic acid δ13C value was -11.74‰--10.28‰, which was significantly different. This method could be used for the authenticity identification of ascorbic acid product identification.
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A rapid ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method for simultaneous detection of coumarins in Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis swingle
ZHOU Huyi, ZHAO Xijuan, JIAO Bining
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 288-295.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035236
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (5514KB) ( 1 )  
Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis swingle can be used as both food and medicine, and coumarins are one of its key bioactive components. There is currently no accurate method for the quick detection and comprehensive quantitation of a series of coumarins owing to their structural similarity and some isomers. In this study, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QqQ-MS/MS) approach was developed for the qualitative and quantitative detection of 41 coumarins in Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis swingle. In brief, within a 14-minute chromatographic run, 16 simple coumarins, 23 furocoumarins, and 2 other coumarins, especially 8 groups of isomers, were separated simultaneously. Recoveries, linear correlation coefficients, detection and quantitation limits, as well as inter-day and intra-day precisions, were used to validate this newly developed method. The method can be utilized for the screening and measurement of coumarins in Citrus medica L. var. sarcodactylis swingle because it has been verified to have high sensitivity, accuracy, and good recoveries. Four coumarins including 8-geranyloxypsoralen, bergamottin, isopimpinellin, and meranzin hydrate were reported for the first time in the fingered citron fruits. This is by far the most comprehensive and quick method to identify and determine coumarins in fingered citrons.
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Analysis of volatile flavor compounds of table grapes, wine grapes, and ornamental grapes
LYU Xi, SUN Xiaohan, WANG Jiaqi, FENG Yantao, ZHANG Jifeng, MA Wen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 296-305.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034351
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (4154KB) ( 2 )  
Volatile flavor compound is an important class of metabolites in grapefruit, which has a very important impact on the sensory quality of their own and processed products. In this study, solid phase extraction and enzymatic hydrolysis technology were used to hydrolyze and release the bound volatiles from the grape, and then the free and bound volatiles were extracted, detected, and analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography and triple four-stage mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-QQQ). The research aimed to clarify the composition of free and bound volatile flavor compounds in Red Globe (table grapes), Cabernet Gernischt (wine grapes), and Jaboticaba (ornamental grapes), providing certain theoretical guidance for improving the aroma quality of fresh eating and processing of grape products identification and regulation. Results showed that 74 free and 40 bound volatile compounds were qualitatively identified from the three grapefruits. Among them, the aroma compounds of Red Globe were mainly composed of free C6 alcohols/aldehydes, higher alcohols, terpenes, carbonyls, and acids. The bound volatiles were few and trace, and the impact on the overall aroma was small. The aroma compounds of Cabernet Gernischt were mainly composed of free C6 alcohols/aldehydes, higher alcohols, esters, 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, bound C6 alcohols/aldehydes, and higher alcohols. The aroma compounds in Jaboticaba were mainly composed of free esters, terpenes, acids, aromatics, C6 alcohols/aldehydes, 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine, bound terpenes, and C6 alcohols/aldehydes. The composition of volatiles of the three compounds was quite different, so each has its unique aroma characteristics.
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Determination of selenium species in selenium-enriched vegetables by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry after ultrasonic-assisted extraction with enzyme
LI Qian, LIU Xingyong, CHEN Xinglian, LUO Lan, YIN Benlin, LI Xinyu, DU Lijuan, WANG Yunmei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 306-311.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035401
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (4003KB) ( 1 )  
This study established a method to simultaneously detect the concentration of SeO2-4, SeO2-3, SeMet, SeCys2 and MeSeCys in selenium-enriched vegetables by high performance-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). Add 4 mg protease XIV and 5 mL aqueous solution with pH 7.5 in 0.2 g sample, treat with ultrasound at 37 ℃ for 80 min, the supernatant pass through 0.22 μm filter membrane. The five selenium species were separated completely within 7 min by Hamilton PRP-X100 anion exchange column under the condition of mobile phase 25 mmol/L citric acid (pH=6.0). The linear coefficients of five selenium species were between 0.999 3 to 0.999 5, and the recoveries of the spiked samples ranged from 96.3% to 104.2%, with the RSD below 7.6%. This method is simple, rapid, precision and accurate, it is thus suitable for the analysis of selenium species in selenium-enriched vegetables.
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Comparison and analysis of non-targeted metabolomics of different extracts of Rosa roxburghii Tratt
LIU Han, GUO Yinping, MU Xingyan, LIU Xiaoyan, CEN Shunyou
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 312-320.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033846
Abstract ( 3 )   HTML    PDF (11462KB) ( 2 )  
One of the more critical steps in metabolomics research is substance extraction. This paper intended to provide a data reference for subsequent metabolomics-based studies and efficient utilization of Rosa roxburghii Tratt. Ultra high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) was used for the non-targeted qualitative analysis of different extracts of Rosa roxburghii Tratt, which was confirmed by database annotation and identification of metabolites. 316 metabolites were identified under secondary mass spectrometry information. The data of different extracts of Rosa roxburghii Tratt were analyzed by multivariate statistical methods and the different metabolites were screened. Principal component analysis showed that differences in metabolites existed among the different extracts of Rosa roxburghii Tratt. Forty-nine significantly different metabolites could be screened based on the variable importance projection value (VIP, VIP>1.3), P<0.01, and fold change (FC, FC≥3 and ≤0.1) of the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis model. Through the MBRole 2.0 pathway analysis function, 11 metabolic pathways were identified. The biosynthesis pathway of flavonoids was the most significant, with a total of four metabolites involved in flavonoid biosynthesis metabolic pathways. In the present paper, metabolomics-based analysis showed that the metabolites of Rosa roxburghii Tratt had some differences between different extracts, providing data support for the further investigation of their functions.
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Effects of LED light quality on growth and metabolite accumulation in microalgae: A review
SUN Jianrui, YAO Linlin, LI Jinglan, YOU Fangfang , YUAN Jiangfeng, WANG Dahong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 321-328.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034214
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (3657KB) ( 4 )  
Light quality is one of the important environmental factors affecting the physiological metabolism of microalgae, which can affect the growth, development photosynthesis, and metabolite accumulation of microalgae. As a new type of cold light source, a light emitting diode (LED) has been widely used due to its advantages of low energy consumption, strong stability, variable colors, safety and environmental protection, and obtaining monochromatic light and composite spectrum as required. So, it is a very suitable artificial light source for microalgae culture. More and more researchers and enterprises have paid great attention to the advantages of LED light quality in regulating the growth and metabolite accumulation of microalgae. In this paper, the effects of different LED light qualities on the growth and the metabolite accumulation of microalgae were emphatically reviewed. Among LED monochromatic light (red, blue, green, yellow, and orange), red light and blue light had the most significant effect on the biomass and metabolite accumulation of different microalgae groups. LED mixed light, especially red and blue light, could increase the biomass and metabolite accumulation more than monochromatic light. However, the optimal light quality of photosynthesis, growth, and metabolite accumulation of microalgae usually varied greatly in different groups and different algae strains of the same species. In the future, the application of LED light quality in microalgae production should focus on the molecular mechanism of light quality affecting the metabolites accumulation, the development of new and efficient LED light sources, the development of efficient photobioreactors based on LED light quality regulation, and the application of LED light quality in the large-scale culture of microalgae.
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Research progress on the production of 2′-fucosyllactose in metabolic engineering
TU Bance, HUANG Guangwen, HUANG Mingzhu, LIU Bin, CHEN Xuelan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 329-334.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035324
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3260KB) ( 3 )  
Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are important components presenting in human breast milk and closely related to the health and development of infants. 2-Fucosyllactose (2′-FL), as the most abundant component in HMO, has significant nutritional and medicinal value, such as promoting infant brain development and improving infant immunity. At present, the synthesis methods of 2′-FL include direct extraction, chemical synthesis, enzymatic synthesis, and microbial fermentation. However, there are many limitations and deficiencies in direct extraction, chemical synthesis and enzymatic synthesis, and microbial fermentation might be the most potential method. In the paper, the studies on the improvement of 2′-FL yield by microbial modification are reviewed, in order to provide reference for the relevant researchers.
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Research progress of isochoric (constant volume) freezing technology in food preservation
WEI Qihang, ZHANG Honghong, LIU Shucheng, XIA Qiuyu, LIU Yang, JI Hongwu, SUN Qinxiu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 335-342.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034304
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (13980KB) ( 2 )  
Freezing is an effective means of inhibiting spoilage and prolonging the shelf life of food products. However, traditional freezing methods are prone to the formation of large and irregular ice crystals, which can lead to the deterioration of food quality. Finding a suitable freezing method to inhibit the deterioration of food quality caused by freezing is a pressing issue for the food freezing industry. Isochoric freezing is an emerging freezing technology that uses an isochoric environment where the formation of ice crystals increases the internal pressure of the environment and lowers the freezing point of the liquid phase, leaving the liquid phase in a supercooled environment, inhibiting the appearance of ice crystals in the food in the liquid phase, and reducing the damage to food tissue caused by ice crystal growth. This paper reviewed the equipment, basic principles, and applications of isochoric freezing in food storage, to provide a reference for the application of isochoric freezing in food storage.
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Advances on pathway of isoflavone biosynthesis and relevant key enzymes
ZHAO Yanmei, LIU Linya, LU Mingqiu, HE Bin, LONG Caifeng, GONG Xiaojian, HUANG Yacheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 343-350.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034264
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (1754KB) ( 3 )  
Isoflavone is an important secondary metabolite in the phenylalanine metabolic pathway of plants. It has a variety of pharmacological activities and has good efficacy in anti-tumor, improving cardiovascular disease, preventing osteoporosis and antidepressant. At present, isoflavones are mostly used in health food, soybean food, dairy products, etc. Previous studies on isoflavones were mostly reflected in pharmacological activities, but there were few reports on key enzymes and transcription factors involved in the synthesis pathway. On the basis of expounding the structure and pharmacological activity of isoflavones, this review focuses on the synthesis pathway, key enzymes, and main transcriptional regulatory factors of isoflavones, and analyzes and prospects the existing problems and future research directions in the investigation of isoflavones. This review may provide reference for further research on the molecular regulation mechanism of isoflavone synthesis and molecular improvement of plants.
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Research progress on extraction, nutritional composition, and biological function of avocado oil
LEI Changgui, MENG Yuzhu, CHEN Jinping, ZHANG Xiaodong, CAI Huazhen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 351-359.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033820
Abstract ( 4 )   HTML    PDF (4222KB) ( 3 )  
Avocado oil is rich in nutrients, such as monounsaturated fatty acids (especially oleic acid), tocopherols, and phytosterols. It has biological functions, such as anti-oxidation, improving cardiovascular health, preventing diabetes, anticancer, and antihypertension. With the deepening of research, avocado oil has attracted growing attention in the field of food and biological medicine. By sorting out the research results of avocado oil reported at home and abroad in recent years, this article reviewed the extraction technologies, nutritional compositions, and biological functions of avocado oil. It could provide a theoretical reference for the innovation of avocado oil extraction technologies, nutritional benefits, and in-depth research on its underlying mechanism.
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Research progress on physical and chemical characteristics, extraction technology, and functional activity of anthocyanins from fruits and vegetables
ZHANG Shushu, LYU Xiang, LIU Wei, ZHANG Juhua
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 360-371.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033971
Abstract ( 4 )   HTML    PDF (4674KB) ( 3 )  
Anthocyanin is a kind of water-soluble flavonoid, which is the main coloring matter in fruits and vegetables. Fruit and vegetable anthocyanins have physiological functions, such as antioxidation, cardiovascular health improvement, eyesight protection, obesity prevention, nerve protection, and anti-tumor. The research progress of physical and chemical characteristics, extraction methods, and functional activities of anthocyanins from different fruits and vegetables were systematically introduced to provide a reference for their further research and application in the field of food and medicine.
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Research progress on the mechanism of food-derived flavonoids regulating type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus via gut microbiota
CAO Wei, JIN Duxin, LIU Rui, WU Mangang, GE Qingfeng, YU Hai
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 372-378.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035141
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (3324KB) ( 4 )  
Flavonoids are a class of secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in fruits and vegetables. Accumulating evidence suggests the alleviative effect of flavonoids in type Ⅱ diabetes mellitus, while gut microbiota plays a significant role in it. On one hand, gut microbiota can improve the bioavailability of flavonoids; on the other hand, flavonoids can improve the development of type Ⅱ diabetes by regulating the composition and abundance of gut microbiota and promoting the production of beneficial metabolites. Thus, intestinal flora may be an important approach for flavonoids to improve type Ⅱ diabetes. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances in the modulatory effect of flavonoids on gut microbiota, the role of gut microbiota on the absorption, metabolism and transformation of flavonoids, and the mechanism of flavonoids in ameliorating type Ⅱ diabetes via gut microbiota, which could provide new ideas for the treatment of type Ⅱ diabetes.
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Research progress on important components of citrus peel and their application
LIU Xuefeng, YANG Mei, XIANG Pingwei, MA Xiaoli, HU Deyu, YANG Maosheng, YUAN Xiangcheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (2): 379-388.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033939
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1460KB) ( 6 )  
Citrus peel is rich in bioactive substances and has important nutritional, health and medical value. The research progress of important bioactive components, bioactivity, and processing and application of citrus peel in recent years was systematically summarized. The bioactive substances rich in citrus peel mainly include flavonoids, alkaloids, volatile oils, limonin, pectin, dietary fiber, and carotenoids, which have antioxidant activity, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activity, anti-diabetes activity, anti-obesity activity, anti-cardiovascular and anti-cerebrovascular disease activity, and anti-cancer activity. Different kinds of citrus peel have been used in the production of drugs, food or food additives, food packaging, and biofuels. The prospect of further exploration and comprehensive utilization of the active ingredients in citrus peel is presented to provide a reference for the rational development and comprehensive application of citrus peel in food, medicine, and other fields.
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DOI: null
The inhibiting effect of flavonoid “astilbin” on pancreatic lipase
Astilbin is a dihydroflavonol that is widely distributed in many foods and plants. Our previous study showed astilbin could significantly decrease the body weight gain and intraperitoneal adipose tissue weight, as wel. . .
DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.015839

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Vol.50
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2020
Vol.46
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2020-11-25
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2019-06-25
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2019-06-15
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2019-05-25
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2019-04-25
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2019-04-15
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2019-03-25
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2019-03-15
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2019-01-25
pp.1-268
No.1
2019-01-15
pp.1-264
2018
Vol.44
No.12 
2018-12-25
pp.1-301
No.11
2018-11-25
pp.1-332
No.10
2018-10-25
pp.1-295
No.9
2018-09-25
pp.1-304
No.8
2018-08-25
pp.1-327
No.7
2018-07-25
pp.1-315
No.6
2018-06-25
pp.1-302
No.5
2018-05-25
pp.1-295
No.4
2018-04-25
pp.1-293
No.3
2018-03-25
pp.1-292
No.2
2018-02-25
pp.1-296
No.1
2018-01-25
pp.1-295
2017
Vol.43
No.12 
2017-12-25
pp.1-0
No.11
2017-11-25
pp.1-268
No.10
2017-10-25
pp.101-293
No.9
2017-09-25
pp.1-0
No.8
2017-08-25
pp.1-0
No.7
2017-07-25
pp.1-0
No.6
2017-06-25
pp.1-0
No.5
2017-05-25
pp.1-0
No.4
2017-04-25
pp.1-0
No.3
2017-03-25
pp.1-0
No.2
2017-02-25
pp.1-0
No.1
2017-01-25
pp.1-0
2016
Vol.42
No.12 
2016-12-25
pp.1-0
No.11
2016-11-25
pp.1-0
No.10
2016-10-25
pp.1-0
No.9
2016-09-25
pp.1-0
No.8
2016-08-25
pp.1-0
No.7
2016-07-25
pp.1-0
No.6
2016-06-25
pp.1-0
No.5
2016-05-25
pp.1-0
No.4
2016-04-25
pp.1-0
No.3
2016-03-25
pp.1-0
No.2
2016-02-25
pp.1-0
No.1
2016-01-25
pp.1-0
2015
Vol.41
No.12 
2015-12-25
pp.1-0
No.11
2015-11-25
pp.1-0
No.10
2015-10-25
pp.1-0
No.9
2015-09-25
pp.1-0
No.8
2015-08-25
pp.1-0
No.7
2015-07-25
pp.1-0
No.6
2015-06-25
pp.1-0
No.5
2015-05-25
pp.1-0
No.4
2015-04-25
pp.1-0
No.3
2015-03-25
pp.1-0
No.2
2015-02-25
pp.1-0
No.1
2015-01-25
pp.1-0
2014
Vol.40
No.12 
2014-12-25
pp.1-234
No.11
2014-11-25
pp.1-275
No.10
2014-10-25
pp.1-244
No.09
2014-09-25
pp.1-242
No.08
2014-08-25
pp.1-267
No.07
2014-07-25
pp.1-250
No.06
2014-06-25
pp.1-244
No.05
2014-05-25
pp.1-262
No.04
2014-04-25
pp.1-242
No.03
2014-03-25
pp.1-252
No.02
2014-02-25
pp.1-238
No.01
2014-01-25
pp.1-253
2013
Vol.39
No.12 
2013-12-25
pp.1-216
No.11
2013-11-25
pp.1-267
No.10
2013-10-25
pp.1-258
No.09
2013-09-25
pp.1-218
No.08
2013-08-25
pp.1-249
No.07
2013-07-25
pp.1-240
No.06
2013-06-25
pp.1-234
No.05
2013-05-25
pp.1-255
No.04
2013-04-25
pp.1-242
No.03
2013-03-25
pp.1-221
No.02
2013-02-25
pp.1-249
No.01
2013-01-25
pp.1-234
2012
Vol.38
No.12 
2012-12-25
pp.1-203
No.11
2012-11-25
pp.1-214
No.10
2012-10-25
pp.1-216
No.09
2012-09-25
pp.1-210
No.08
2012-08-25
pp.1-234
No.07
2012-07-25
pp.1-215
No.06
2012-06-25
pp.1-228
No.05
2012-05-25
pp.1-239
No.04
2012-04-25
pp.1-227
No.03
2012-03-25
pp.1-197
No.02
2012-02-25
pp.1-241
No.01
2012-01-25
pp.1-237
2011
Vol.37
No.12 
2011-12-25
pp.1-212
No.11
2011-11-25
pp.1-245
No.10
2011-10-25
pp.1-228
No.09
2011-09-25
pp.1-239
No.08
2011-08-25
pp.1-225
No.07
2011-07-25
pp.1-239
No.06
2011-06-25
pp.1-237
No.05
2011-05-25
pp.1-242
No.04
2011-04-25
pp.1-246
No.03
2011-03-25
pp.1-238
No.02
2011-02-25
pp.1-223
No.01
2011-01-25
pp.1-214


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