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Governing Body: China Light Industry Council
Organizers: China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries
China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries
Editor-in-chief: Chi Cheng
Associate Editor-in-chief: Su Yao
Editor-in-charge: Honghua Lin, Yongjie Yao, Biying Li, Xin Li, Ye Li
Editor: Yawei Chen, Rui Li, Xintian Wang, Guoxiao Sun, Yue Zheng
English Editor: Yawei Chen, Ye Li, Guoxiao Sun
English Editorial specialist: Zhengxiang Wang, Fei Xu
Art Editor: Xuehan Yu
Issuer: Fang Liu
Frequency of Publication: semimonthly
Place of Publication: Beijing
ISSN 0253-990X
CN 11-1802/TS
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Cover article
As one of the essential amino acids,厶-valine plays an important role in physioloxy and biochemistro. Pyruvate io not only the precursor nee......
Current Issue In Press Online First Archive Top Read Top Downloaded
Food and Fermentation Industries (F&FI, CN 11-1802/TS, ISSN 0253-990X) was founded in 1970 and published semimonthly, which is the first scientific and technological journal in the Chinese food industry. F&FI is a Chinese core journal, under the charge of China National Light Industry Council and sponsored, edited, and published by China National Research Institute of Food & Fermentation Industries Co. Ltd. and China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries (FFIC). F&FI focuses on the interdisciplinary of food and fermentation, including research papers on food science and engineering, fermentation engineering, bioengineering, food safety, engineering design, and other aspects, as well as reviews on the development trends and industrial innovation of food and fermentation science and technology at home and abroad. F&FI represents a high academic level in the field of modern food and fermentation in China and has built an excellent platform for scientists and R&D teams.
  25 October 2022, Volume 48 Issue 20 Previous Issue   
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Development of cationic peptide chimeric lysins based on polyvalent phage lysin and their antibacterial activities
丛瑜, 林洪, 王静雪
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031476
Abstract ( 51 )   HTML    PDF (2833KB) ( 24 )  
Polyvalent phage vB_SEqdws-315 can lyse both Salmonella and Escherichia coli strains, which has the potential to be used as antibacterial agents. In order to further study the antibacterial effect of its endolysin Lysin315, the gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) with the induction of IPTG. High-purity recombinant Lysin315 was obtained by affinity chromatography. The molecular weight of Lysin315 was close to 25 kDa. Lysin315 needed EDTA as membrane permeability agents to inhibit the gram-negative bacteria because of the limitation of the cell wall structure of gram-negative bacteria. In order to enhance the direct antibacterial activity, Lysin315 was modified by cationic peptides to obtain chimeric lysins (Lysin315-5aa, Lysin315-10aa and Lysin315-15aa). All of the recombinant lysins were cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) induced by IPTG and purified by affinity chromatography to acquire high purity. The results showed that cationic lysins could independently inhibit the hosts with high concentration without any membrane permeabilities. Lysin315-10aa also showed good antibacterial activities against Salmonella (106 CFU/mL) in milk at 4°C and 25°C. The development of cationic peptide chimeric lysins provided a solution for the independent application of gram-negative bacteriophages lysins.
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Preparation of dialdehyde nanocellulose and Pickering emulsions which synergistically stabilized with gelatin
曹子璇, 吕天艺, 冯鑫, 陈媛, 张宇昊, 周鸿媛, 戴宏杰
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 7-14.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029637
Abstract ( 28 )   HTML    PDF (13764KB) ( 7 )  
Microcrystalline cellulose was used as raw material to prepare dialdehyde cellulose nanocrystals (DACNC) through sulfuric acid hydrolysis and sodium periodate oxidation, then the structure of DACNC was characterized. Subsequently, DACNC and gelatin were further used as the synergistic emulsifier to stabilize Pickering emulsions. The effects of gelatin/DACNC addition sequence, DACNC concentration, and external environmental conditions (i.e. temperature, pH, and ionic strength) on the properties and stability of the emulsions were investigated. Results showed that after sodium periodate oxidation, the length of DACNC became shorter, the thermal stability increased, and the Zeta potential changed less. It could be better when DACNC and gelatin were pre-mixed and then added to the oil phase to prepare the emulsion. At the same time, as the concentration of DACNC increased, the droplet size, viscosity and modulus of the emulsions gradually increased. The enhancement of emulsion stability was mainly due to the Schiff base reaction between the amino groups of gelatins and the aldehyde groups of DACNC. Notably, the enhancement of the continuous phase network of the emulsion induced by DACNC was also conducive to the stability of emulsions. The results of emulsion environmental stabilities showed that the gelatin/DACNC synergistic approach solved the problem of poor stability of emulsions stabilized by pure gelatin or CNC alone at low ionic strength, low pH, and higher temperature. The current research develops a novel approach to using DACNC and gelatin as synergistic Pickering stabilizers to improve the properties of emulsions, which provides a reference for nanocellulose and protein particles to synergistically stabilize Pickering emulsions.
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Optimization and application of the genetic transformation system based on electroshock strategy for Blakeslea trispora
沈思巧, 杨培龙, 曲音波, 余晓斌, 罗玮
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 15-21.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032744
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML    PDF (3371KB) ( 4 )  
Electroshock is a rapid and effective transformation method that can be widely used in microbial genetic manipulation. In order to establish an efficient and applicable genetic transformation technique for Blakeslea trispora, this study optimized its protoplast transformation based on the electroshock strategy. The enzymatic digestion time, voltage and electric pulse time, buffer type, nucleic acid concentration and regeneration incubation time for the preparation of protoplasts were first optimized as single factors. Then orthogonal design tests showed that the highest transformation efficiency of 35.1 CFU/μg was achieved at a voltage of 0.4 kV and an electrical pulse time of 2 ms, followed by regeneration incubation for 3 h. Subsequently, taking the expression vector of recombinant gene btwc-1c as an example, it was electrotransformed with a transformation efficiency of approximately 30 CFU/μg. When compared with the wild-type bacteria, the expression level of btwc-1c and the synthesis level of β-carotene in the transformed bacteria by fluorescence PCR and phenotypic analyses increased by 2.5-fold and 2.1-fold, respectively. This indicated that the electrotransformation method established in this study could achieve efficient uptake of exogenous vector by the recipient bacteria and lay a good foundation for the study of the functions of key regulatory genes in B. trispora.
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Pathway engineering modification of Corynebacterium glutamicum for L-cysteine synthesis
卞金玉, 张晓梅, 徐国强, 史劲松, 许正宏
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 22-28.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030796
Abstract ( 20 )   HTML    PDF (2419KB) ( 8 )  
L-cysteine is an important sulfur-containing amino acid, which is widely used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. In this study, C. glutamicum A36 was engineered to efficiently produce L-cysteine from sugar, and showed highest L-serine titer comparing with its' parent strain. In order to produce L-cysteine, two types of the serine O-acetyltransferase (gene encoded by cysE) were overexpressed in strain A36 respectively, strain S-C-1 and S-C-2 had been constructed, L-cysteine titer was 115.8 mg/L and 105.8 mg/L, respectively, and the parent strain A36 couldn't produce L-cysteine. Subsequently, in order to increase the titer of L-cysteine, several metabolic engineering strategies were performed, including overexpression of the OASS-A (gene encoded by cysK) and the L-cysteine exporter Bcr (gene encoded by bcr), and the deletion of the degradation pathway. A series recombinant strain had been constructed, and among all strains, S-C-7 showed the highest L-cysteine titer of 286.7 mg/L. The sulfur source was optimized to increase L-cysteine titer further, the addition of 12 g/L sodium thiosulfate at 24 h showed the highest L-cysteine titer of 581.6 mg/L, which was two times of that before optimization. Finally, in 5 L fermenter, the L-cysteine titer of strain S-C-7 could reach 1.2 g/L, which was the highest titer of L-cysteine produced by C. glutamicum up to now. It laid a foundation for the L-cysteine production by C. glutamicum.
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Study on the flesh color stability of different parts of yak meat during postmortem aging
王琳琳, 陈炼红, 张岩
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 29-35.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028753
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (1746KB) ( 6 )  
This study aimed to explore the changes in meat color and the relationship between meat color indexes in different parts of yak meat during postmortem aging. The latissimus dorsi, longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus meat were taken as the research objects. The meat color, stability index of flesh color, the total myoglobin (TMb) content, the relative content of oxymyoglobin (OMb) and metmyoglobin (MMb), metmyoglobin reductase (MetMbR) activity, and pH value were determined and analyzed. Results showed that, with the aging time prolonged, the L* and a* values of the latissimus dorsi, longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus meat tended to increase first and then decrease. The TMb content, OMb% and MetMbR activity showed a downward trend. In which, OMb% and MetMbR activity decreased significantly (P < 0.05), while MMb% increased significantly (P<0.05). The pH value tended to decrease and then remain relatively stable. Meanwhile, the b* value and H* value of the longissimus dorsi and semitendinosus meat presented a gradual upward trend, and the b* value and H* value of the latissimus dorsi increased first and then decreased. At the same aging time, there was no significant difference between the L* and b* values of the three-treatment yak meat. The a* value, TMb content, OMb%, and MetMbR activity of the latissimus dorsi and longissimus dorsi were higher than those of the semitendinous meat. In addition, the MMb% and H* values of the semitendinosus meat were higher than those of the latissimus dorsi and longissimus dorsi. It could be seen that the meat color stability of the latissimus dorsi and longissimus dorsi was superior to the semitendinosus meat of yak meat, while the color stability did not show the same tendency.
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Tracing the origin of Red Fuji apple based on variable optimization and near-infrared spectroscopy
张立欣, 杨翠芳, 陈杰, 张晓果, 张楠楠, 张晓
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 36-43.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029991
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (4016KB) ( 10 )  
Near-infrared spectrum data of Red Fuji apples from Aksu, Jingning, Lingbao, and Yantai were collected to trace the origin of Red Fuji apples. Nine methods including normalization (NOR), centralization (CEN), first derivative (1-DER), second derivative (2-DER), standard normal transform (SNV), multivariate scattering correction (MSC), wavelet transform (WT), SG smoothing transform (SG), and Fourier transform (FT) were used to preprocess the original spectrum. Results showed that the model after multivariate scattering correction pretreatment had the highest recognition rate of 97.5%, and the recognition rates of Aksu, Jingning, Lingbao, and Yantai were 100%, 100%, 90%, and 100%, respectively. To simplify the model, principal component analysis (PCA), successive projection algorithm (SPA), competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS), random frog (RF), and their combination algorithms were used to select characteristic variables. Results showed that the total recognition rate of MSC-CARS-SPA-PNN was 98.75%, and the recognition rates of Red Fuji apples from four producing areas were 100%, 100%, 95%, and 100%, respectively, which could provide theoretical reference for the origin discrimination of Red Fuji apples.
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Solid-state anaerobic digestion characteristics of vinegar residue and microbial community structure analysis
张周, 张雅晶, 周云龙, 许之扬, 施万胜, 阮文权
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 44-50.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030736
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML    PDF (3012KB) ( 14 )  
As the generation of vinegar residue is increasing, its appropriate disposal is important. Anaerobic digestion is an important way to realize the resourcization and reduction of vinegar residue. A high solid-state continuous anaerobic digestion system was constructed for the vinegar residue treatment by using a full-mixed anaerobic reactor, the biogas generation performance, changes of intermediate metabolites and microbial community structure were investigated under different organic loading rate (OLR). The results indicated that the optimum anaerobic digestion performance was obtained when the organic loading rate reached 6.06 g/(L·d), with the biogas and methane yield of 423 and 226 mL/g, respectively. The relative abundances of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were 45.6% and 53.1%, respectively. And the relative abundance distribution of 4 species of microorganism related to lignocellulose metabolism was evenly distributed, which was helpful to the formation of various metabolic pathways to promote substrate hydrolysis. The analysis of archaea showed that Methanobacterium and Methanosarcina were the dominant microorganism, hydrotrophic and mixed-trophic methanogenesis pathways had synergetic effect. When the system was stable, the mass concentrations of total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) were maintained at about 2 and 9 g/L, respectively. High VFAs concentration could inhibit the activity of methanogens and reduce the methane generation rate. Therefore, the fully-mixed high-solid anaerobic digestion system could efficiently treat the vinegar residue. The diversity of microbial community was high, different hydrolysates could be all utilized by methane production pathways in the system.
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Preparation of polypeptides from Acetes chinensis by membrane separation and evaluation of taste
惠婷婷, 杨志艳, 祝宝华, 李燕, 李晓晖
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 51-56.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032656
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (1898KB) ( 5 )  
In this study, membrane filtration technology was applied to prepare polypeptides from Acetes chinensis hydrolysate under the previous optimal enzymatic hydrolysis conditions. The Acetes chinensis hydrolysate was successively filtered by ceramic membrane, 3 000 Da ultrafiltration membrane and 150 Da nanofiltration membrane. The solid recovery of nanofiltration retentate was (51.06±1.34)%. The lyophilized powder contained total nitrogen content of (13.95±0.05) g/100g, polypeptide content (70.75±0.35) g/100g and free amino acid content (14.64±0.27) g/100g. The taste characteristics of Acetes chinensis hydrolysate and membrane separation components were analyzed by electronic tongue, hydrophobicity index and sensory evaluation. The results showed that the umami taste increased, the sour and salty taste decreased, the hydrophobicity index decreased, and a certain bitter taste existed in the enzymatic hydrolysate after membrane separation. This study can provide theoretical basis and technical support for the polypeptide preparation and flavor improvement of Acetes chinensis hydrolysate, and lay a foundation for the industrial production and development of related polypeptide products from low-valued Acetes chinensis.
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Bacterial diversity in pasteurized milk under different temperatures
郑家铭, 洪意, 吴瑜凡, 方太松, 申进玲, 董庆利, 王翔
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 57-63.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030699
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML    PDF (4835KB) ( 14 )  
In this study, Illumina MiSeq amplicon sequencing was used to analyze the bacterial diversity in pasteurized milk stored at 10, 15 and 25 ℃. The shift of bacterial community in pasteurized milk during storage was studied, the bacterial community structure and predicted functions were compared. The results showed that the diversity index of bacterial community was almost constant in the early storage period under different temperatures, and the aerobic bacterial count maintained between 2-3 lgCFU/mL. During this period, Acinetobacter and Enterobacter were the dominant bacterial genera. With the extension of storage, the bacterial diversity showed a significant decreasing trend under 25 ℃, while that of 10 ℃ decreased slowly. The abundance of Bacillus increased and became the dominant genus. At the same time, the aerobic bacterial count increased rapidly. The high abundance of metabolic functions such as cell metabolism, genetic information processing and environmental information processing were detected by Tax4Fun method, all the levels changed to varying degrees during storage. The results showed that the shelf life of pasteurized milk shortened quickly under uncontrolled temperature condition, and Bacillus may be the main reason for spoilage. The results provide information for the study of bacterial community shift and quality control of pasteurized milk.
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Studies on phenols and aroma of the clonal Chardonnay grape
刘政海, 董志刚, 李晓梅, 谭敏, 杨镕兆, 贺晋瑜, 赵旗峰
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 64-69.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028786
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML    PDF (1613KB) ( 5 )  
The quality of wine grapes is a key factor in determining the wine style and typicality. Four clonal grapes of Chardonnay were used to analyze and compare the phenolic content in different parts of the fruits and the aroma quality during maturity. Results showed that when the fruit was fully mature, Chardonnay 277 had a significantly higher ratio of soluble solids and skin flesh ratio than the other three clonal ones. The solid acid ratio and fruit shape index of Chardonnay 76 were significantly higher than those of the other three clonal grapes. From 40 days after flowering to fruit maturity, the contents of flavanols and total flavonoids in Chardonnay 96 skin were significantly higher than those of the other three. At the fruit mature stage, the tannin content in the skin and flesh of Chardonnay 96 was significantly higher than that of the other three clones. And the contents of total flavonoids and flavanols in the flesh of Chardonnay 277 were significantly higher than those of the other three clonal grapes. A total of 96 volatile aroma substances were detected in the 4 clonal Chardonnay grapes during the fruit mature stage. The OAVs of floral and fruity aromas in Chardonnay 76 fruits were significantly higher than those of the others. Under the conditions of cultivation in the Loess Plateau, Chardonnay 96 and Chardonnay 277 can be used as high phenolic clonal Chardonnay, and Chardonnay 76 can be used as high aroma clonal Chardonnay.
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Substrate affinity design for the improvement of nitrilase Nit6803 activity
刘欣悦, 韩来闯, 刘中美
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 70-77.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030432
Abstract ( 19 )   HTML    PDF (7325KB) ( 5 )  
Nitrilase (EC 3.5.5.1) is an ideal biocatalyst for a variety of essential bulk chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates, due to its capability to catalyze nitrile to carboxylic acid with high stereoselectivity under mild reaction conditions. However, the low activity and poor thermal stability of natural enzymes still limit its industrial application. In recent years, it has been a research hotspot to break through the bottleneck of ‘trade-off' between activity and stability through protein engineering. This study proposes a novel enzyme-substrate affinity design strategy. The nitrilase Nit6803 derived from Syechocystis sp. PCC6803 was improved in activity through the rational design combining the Cartesian_ddG method in Rosetta suite and the enzyme-substrate affinity calculation based on free energy perturbation. The single-point mutants F64Y, W170G, and combination mutant F64Y/W170G with significantly improved activity were obtained. Among them, the specific enzyme activity of F64Y/W170G reached (22.48±0.64) U/mg, which was 4.56 times that of the wild type, and the thermal stability maintained. Whole-cell catalysis by adding 3-cyanopyridine in batches showed that F64Y/W170G had stronger catalytic ability than wild type, and greatly shortened the catalysis time when reaching the same conversion rate. The results demonstrated that the engineering strategy proposed in this study can effectively enhance the enzyme activity without decreasing its stability, which provides a new idea for the rational design of enzymes.
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Effect of curcumin co-crystal-mediated photodynamic inactivation on Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilm
古伟明, 马皓然, 孙建霞, 刘丹
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 78-84.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030775
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (2610KB) ( 4 )  
Curcumin (CUR) is a natural diketone compound which is widely used as photosensitizer for photodynamic inactivation (PDI) due to its low toxicity and low cost. However, the main limitation of CUR in PDI application is its low solubility and low bioavailability. Co-crystallization is a novel process enables improvement in physicochemical properties of active ingredients by incidence of molecular interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredient and conformer. In this study, curcumin co-crystals were prepared by grinding, natural volatilization and spin evaporation. Among them, the curcumin D-Tyr co-crystals (CDC) prepared by natural volatilization had the highest solubility in ethanol (0.5% volume ratio), which was 8.35 times that of CUR. Compared with CUR, CDC also showed a different crystal structure. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of CDC was 0.005 0 g/L, while the MIC of CUR was 0.010 g/L. The inhibition rate of CDC-mediated PDI at 0.005 0 g/L on biofilm was 91.80%, while that of CUR at the same concentration was only 57.07%. With the increased solubility of CDC, CDC showed stronger inhibition effects on polysaccharides and proteins in extracellular polymers (EPS), which lead to reduced resistance of Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilm to CDC-mediated PDI. This study provides a fundamental for further application of photodynamic technology in food safety control.
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Community diversity of different bacterial-type of Guizhou Douchi using high throughput sequencing
王娜, 陈万轩, 张伟萍, 张剑霜
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 85-90.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030524
Abstract ( 23 )   HTML    PDF (4228KB) ( 15 )  
The bacterial community structures and composition differences of three types of Guizhou Douchi, namely dry Douchi, wet Douchi and water Douchi, were investigated and compared by high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 1 098 891 valid data and 884 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were obtained, and clustered into five bacterial phyla and 96 genera. The dominant bacterial phyla were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria, accounting for more than 99.0% in the all three types of Douchi. Bacillus and Proteus were the major genera in dry Douchi, and the dominant genera of wet Douchi were Bacillus and Providencia. The samples of water Douchi were abundant in Bacillus and Tetragonococcus. Bacillus was the dominant genus in the three types of Douchi, and the relative abundance of Bacillus in dry Douchi, wet Douchi and water Douchi were 93.0%, 74.3% and 42.3%, respectively. In addition, the results of cluster analysis and principal component analysis demonstrated that the bacterial communities of dry Douchi and wet Douchi were similar, and the bacterial species of water Douchi were more abundant than others. This study provides a theoretical basis for the standardization and safety management of Guizhou Douchi.
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Insight into the metabolic differences of jasmonic acid-producing Lasiodiplodia iranensis under static and shaking conditions
沈子强, 郑璞, 李睿英, 吴丹, 陈鹏程
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 91-97.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030644
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (5412KB) ( 4 )  
Jasmonic acid is a plant endogenous hormone that plays an important role in the process of plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stress. The filamentous fungus Lasiodiplodia sp. can secrete jasmonic acid under static culture, while the mechanism of jasmonic acid synthesis is still unclear. In this study, Lasiodiplodia iranensis CCTCC M2017188 was selected as the research object, and L. iranensis was cultured under static and shaking conditions to investigate the influence mechanism of culture environment on jasmonic acid synthesis. The fermentation parameters under two conditions were investigated, and metabolic intermediates were collected for metabolomics analysis.There were significant differences in the metabolic characteristics of L. iranensis under two conditions. The biomass under shaking culture was higher, the substrate consumption rate was faster, while the yield of jasmonic acid was lower, compared with static culture. In addition, the pH fluctuatuion and the morphology of mycelium were different from those in static culture. Through non-targeted metabolomics analysis, a total of 77 different metabolites were identified, 26 of which were enriched in the KEGG metabolic pathway. Comparing static and shaking culture, the metabolic pathway that contains the most down-regulated metabolites was amino acid metabolism, among which dulcitol, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, adenine, guanosine and L-tryptophan were down-regulated. And another significantly down-regulated metabolic pathway was nucleotide metabolism. While there are only two different metabolites in lipid metabolism, among which jasmonic acid is significantly up-regulated. Under shaking condition, the nutrients ingested by fungi flew more to amino acid metabolism and nucleotide metabolism, while the flux to jasmonic acid synthesis was relatively reduced. In addition, jasmonic acid synthesis was competitively inhibited by traumatic acid and 3-hexenol metabolic pathways. This explained the reason for the low yield of jasmonic acid under shaking condition to some extent, and is meaningful for understanding the mechanism of jasmonic acid synthesis by fungi.
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Improving the extraction of heavy metals from aquatic products by enzyme-assisted dual-frequency ultrasound
刘馨娜, 郝丽玲, 徐斐, 曹慧, 袁敏, 叶泰, 吴秀秀, 阴凤琴, 于劲松, 黄椿华
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030442
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (1817KB) ( 4 )  
A pre-treatment method based on dual-frequency ultrasonic-assisted enzyme extraction of heavy metal from aquatic products was establish in this study, using protease hydrolysis, cavitation effect of ultrasonic probe and temperature control of ultrasonic water bath. The rapid extraction of heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) from aquatic products and its products could be achieved within 6 min. The effects of ultrasonic mode, buffer solution type, enzyme dosage, system pH value and solid-liquid ratio on the extraction efficiency were investigated by single factor experiment to obtain the optimal extraction conditions and pre-treatment method. The optimal extraction conditions of cadmium from oyster samples were as follows: ultrasonic mode combining ultrasonic water bath (UB) and ultrasonic probe (UP), Tris as buffer solution, 0.7 g flavoring protease and 0.3 g trypsin as complex enzyme formula, pH 7, solid-liquid ratio 1∶5(g∶mL). Under these conditions, the extraction rate of heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) from oyster reached 104.76%. Based on the optimal extraction conditions above, the method could be applied in other matrix such as crab meat, hairtail, squid, shrimp and shrimp slide only by changing the power of ultrasonic probe, and the extraction rate of Cd(Ⅱ) reached 75%-110% in those aquatic samples. The pretreatment method could realize rapid and efficient extraction of heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) from aquatic products and their products. Compared with the strong acid digestion method specified in the national standard, the buffer solution used in this pretreatment was neutral, environmentally friendly, and had good compatibility with the rapid determination of heavy metal ions. It has a broad application prospect in the pretreatment and rapid detection of heavy metal Cd(Ⅱ) in various aquatic products and their products.
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The characterization of carboxymethyl porous starch and its adsorption on quercetin
王宇霞, 马云翔, 苟丽娜, 李敏, 张盛贵
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 105-111.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029481
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (4685KB) ( 5 )  
Potato porous starch (PS) is used as a material to prepare carboxymethyl porous starch (CMPS) with better solubility and adsorption, then CMPS will be used as a carrier of biologically active substances. The experiment used N2-adsorption/desorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), liquid nuclear magnetic (1H NMR), adsorption performance analysis and other methods to study the characteristics of the prepared samples CMPS. The results showed that carboxymethyl porous starch (CMPS) with a degree of substitution (DS) of 0.25-1.44 was successfully prepared. The specific surface area of PS (42.88 m2/g) was the largest. After carboxymethylation, the specific surface area (12.06 m2/g) of CMPS decreased. However, compared with the specific surface area (0.87 m2/g) of carboxymethyl starch (CMS), it was still significantly increased. Both porous and carboxymethyl treatments made the starch crystal disappear, and the etherification reaction reduced the thermal stability of the starch. The loading rate of CMPS@Q was 13.71%, which was 95.84% higher than the loading rate of CMS@Q (0.57%). Compared with quercetin insoluble in water, the water solubility of CMPS@Q (34.00%) was 45.74% higher than that of CMS@Q (23.33%). The prepared CMPS has a good porous structure, specific surface area, solubility and adsorption performance, and can be used as a carrier of low water-soluble functional substances.
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Suitability evaluation of main citrus varieties for juice processing in Hunan province
高甜甜, 史婷, 李高阳, 何双, 尚雪波, 戴润平, 张菊华, 刘伟
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 112-121.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029023
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (2708KB) ( 6 )  
In this paper, seven different citrus varieties mainly planted in Hunan province were used as raw materials for the evaluation of their processing characters. The physicochemical indexes, functional components and volatile aroma components of the juice were analyzed, and the suitability evaluation method of citrus juice was established by principal component analysis, cluster analysis and “rationality satisfaction” multidimensional evaluation theory. Results showed that there were significant differences in juice quality among different citrus varieties (P < 0.05). The contents of tangeretin, naringenin and neohesperidin were significantly different, the coefficients of variation were 251.37%, 249.65%, and 122.93% respectively. The juice yield, soluble solid content and total sugar content were slightly different, the coefficients of variation were 9.81%, 9.68%, and 4.85% respectively. Sixty kinds of volatile aroma components were detected, terpinen-4-ol, linalool, β-myrcene and D-limonene were the main aroma components of citrus juice. Moreover, six principal components were extracted by principal component analysis, and the cumulative variance contribution rate was 93.48%. Combined with cluster analysis, the quality indexes were simplified as six representative indexes: Solid acid ratio, juice yield, soluble solids, didymin, neohesperidin, and limonin. The evaluation model of citrus juice was established by using the multi-dimensional value theory of "rationality satisfaction". The comprehensive order was as follows: Ponkan > Valencia orange > Langfeng navel orange > Orah > blood orange > Bingtang orange > Wenzhou orange, which had a high positive correlation with sensory evaluation. This study provides a theoretical reference for the selection of juice varieties in Hunan province.
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Antimicrobial mechanism of metal antimicrobial peptide SIF4 against Escherichia coli based on glucose metabolism pathway and cytoplasmic membrane oxidative damage
李玉珍, 肖怀秋, 王琳, 刘淼, 曾梦琪, 曹丹, 赵谋明
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 122-129.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032698
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (2327KB) ( 3 )  
To reveal the antimicrobial mechanism of metal antimicrobial peptide (MAP) SIF4 against Escherichia coli based on glucose metabolism pathway and cytoplasmic membrane oxidative damage, the effects of SIF4 on critical enzymatic activity of Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, cytoplasmic membrane oxidative damage, intracellular ROS production and cell membrane depolarization were investigated. Results showed that, SIF4 inhibited the key enzymes in glycolysis, including hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK) and pyruvate kinase (PK), by 66.61%, 27.37, and 39.61%, respectively, and the key enzymes in TCA cycle, including pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC), citrate synthetase (CS), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and α-ketoglutaric dehydrogenase (α-KGDH), by 25.20%, 22.91%, 26.99 and 23.44%, respectively. SIF4 exerted good antimicrobial capacity mainly through regulating glucose oxidation efficiency by restraining the HK activity in glycolysis. It was also confirmed that SIF4 could cause cytoplasmic membrane oxidative damage and induce oxidative stress to produce excessive ROS, resulting in destroying cytoplasmic membrane structural integrity, and exerting synergistic enhancement of antimicrobial capacity by inducing cell apoptosis or programmed cell death. All results can provide direct evidence for systematically elucidating antimicrobial mechanism of SIF4 against E. coli, and also offer theoretical support for its application in the biological control of foodborne E. coli.
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Effects of roasting conditions on rheological properties and flavor of walnut fermented milk
伏威铭, 焦博, 张雨, 陈奕颖, 李嗣生, 李薇, 杨洁, 王强
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 130-136.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030606
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (1588KB) ( 7 )  
Roasting is an essential way to enhance flavor in food processing, herein, the effects of roasting on the gel strength and flavor of walnut fermented milk were studied. Walnut fermented milk was prepared from non-roasted walnuts or roasted walnuts at 60, 90, 120 or 150 ℃ for 15 min. The changes in rheology, texture, and color of fermented milk were investigated. At the same time, the composition and content of volatile flavor compounds were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that the fermented milk produced by roasted walnut at 90 ℃ for 15 min had the strongest gel structure. Its apparent viscosity, storage modulus, and loss modulus were significantly higher than those of other groups (P <0.05). Eighty-one volatile flavor compounds were identified in walnut fermented milk with different roasting conditions, including sixteen volatile flavor compounds with aroma activity value ≥1. The results of the principal component analysis showed that the volatile flavor compounds of walnut fermented milk were different from each other. When the roasting temperature was higher than 90 ℃, the increase of aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, furans and pyrazines was helpful to improve the flavor. This study will provide a guidance for the determination of roasting conditions in the production of walnut fermented milk.
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Fermentation kinetics and high density culture studies of Lactobacillus plantarum
赖长龙, 曹余, 杨玉, 李红艳, 范亚苇, 邓泽元
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 137-144.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030356
Abstract ( 24 )   HTML    PDF (3369KB) ( 8 )  
To improve the production of Lactobacillus plantarum with probiotic properties, the medium composition, fermentation conditions and fed-batch method were optimized based on fermentation kinetic simulations. Firstly, the medium composition was optimized through single-factor experiments. Among the carbon sources studied, the results showed that maltose had the most significant effect in promoting the growth of the bacteria. Compared to glucose, maltose was more effective in promoting the growth of L. plantarum, probably due to the rapidly consumed of glucose by the bacteria to produce acid, lowering the pH of the medium and inhibiting its own growth. Considering the high cost of using maltose alone, glucose and maltose(mass ratio 2∶3) were chosen as the optimal carbon source. Among the nitrogen sources studied, organic nitrogen sources were significantly better than inorganic nitrogen sources, while the highest production of bacteria was achieved when yeast powder and peptone (mass ratio1∶1) was chosen as the nitrogen source. Compared with single nitrogen source, the peptone which had macromolecular peptide combined with the yeast powder significantly promoted the growth of L. plantarum.Different concentrations of hybrid carbon source and nitrogen source had an important effect on the growth of bacteria. The maximum production of bacteria was achieved when the concentration of hybrid carbon source and nitrogen source were 30 g/L and 25 g/L, respectively.The addition of buffer salts to the medium could balance the pH and reduce the inhibitory effect on the bacteria. In this study, different concentrations of the buffer salt system were investigated and the amount of bacteria initially increased with increasing buffer salt concentration but then decreased. When the concentration of diammonium citrate was 25 g/L, the medium buffer effect was the best.Subsequently, an intelligent model combining artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) was established to optimize the medium composition. By optimizing the artificial neural network structure, the results showed that the minimum mean square error was 0.009 1 when the number of neurons in the single hidden layer was nine. The minimum mean square error was 0.024 2 when the number of neurons in the double hidden layer was seven and nine. The single hidden layer model fitted the biomass better than the double hidden layer model, so the single hidden layer structure was used in this study. The neural network model was used as the fitness function of the genetic algorithm, and after 369 iterations,the results of medium optimization was obtained as follows (g/L): carbon source 36.64 (glucose-maltose mass ratio 2∶3), nitrogen source 47.83 (yeast powder-peptone mass ratio 1∶1) and ammonium citrate 33.27 . Meanwhile, the experimental value of biomass under the optimal conditions was 10.86 g/L, with an error value of less than 2%. The experimental values were in good agreement with the predicted values, indicating that the generated ANN-GA model has good predictive and optimization capabilities.Furthermore,Logistic and Luedeking-Piret models were used to fit the fermentation process of L. plantarum,the correlation coefficients R2 for the kinetic models of bacterial growth, substrate consumption and product generation were 0.995, 0.998 and 0.993 respectively, indicating that these models were able to accurately simulate the fermentation process of L. plantarum. Finally, the culture conditions and fed-batch were optimized.Under the optimized medium condition, the growth effect of L. plantarum was the best at 35 ℃.The bacteria had the highest biomass at pH 5.0 and growth was inhibited as the initial pH of the medium increased. The best growth was achieved at 4% inoculum. When the inoculum was 5%, the amount of biomass decreases, probably because the inoculum was too large and the nutrients in the medium were not sufficient for the simultaneous growth . Therefore, the optimum culture conditions were 35 ℃, initial pH 5.0, inoculum 4%. Fed-batch was one of the most commonly used methods to increase production efficiency in the fermentation industry. In the late exponential growth phase,the bacteria had a high demand for carbon sources, meanwhile provided additional carbon source to meet the growth needs of the bacteria and thus increase production. Neutralisers were usually used to prevent pH drops during fermentation, and NH3·H2O can significantly increase the density of bacteria in the culture broth. In this experiment, the effect of supplement with different concentrations of glucose on the biomass of lactic acid bacteria was investigated. Excessive glucose decreased the production of the bacteria, and the maximum biomass was achieved when glucose was supplemented to 30 g/L. The number of supplements was also optimized, with the increased in the number of supplements, the bacteria production gradually decreased and the maximum biomass was achieved with a single supplement. Thus, through supplied with glucose and NH3·H2O ,the biomass could reach 12.64 g/L, which was 19% higher than without supplement.
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Effects of sterilization methods on the sensory related characteristics and nutritional quality of passion fruit juice
牛慧慧, 张慧云, 邹文惠, 云雨柔, 田俊, 易俊洁, 周林燕
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 145-151.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030598
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML    PDF (4341KB) ( 5 )  
This study investigated the effects of high pressure processing (HPP, 600 MPa/5 min), pasteurization (PT, 85 ℃/30 s) and high temperature short time sterilization (HTST, 110 ℃/8.6 s) on physicochemical properties (color, sugar, acid), aroma profile, nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of passion fruit juice (PFJ). Overall, all three processing technologies had no significant effects on the individual sugar (glucose, fructose, and sucrose) and organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, and quinic acid) of PFJ. HPP showed no significant influences on L*, a* and b* values of PFJ. In contrast, PT and HTST significantly decreased L* and b* values, and increased a* value. The amounts of major aroma compounds in PT and HTST treated samples were significantly reduced, esters were significantly decreased by 12.6% and 34.9%, respectively. The aroma compounds were better retained by HPP, and the amounts of ketones, alcohols, and esters even increased by 32.3%, 11.5%, and 4.5%, respectively. Heat treatment greatly reduced antioxidants such as vitamin C, carotenoids and antioxidant activity, while HPP retained better nutritional quality. In addition, the PFJ treated by HPP was rated the highest scores for its sensory attributes, which was also supported by the results of instrumental analysis results. This research provided a theoretical basis for the industrial production of PFJ.
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Effect of simulated transportation with the treatment of 1-methylcyclopropene
吉宁, 张妮, 陶秋运, 曹森, 巴良杰, 王瑞
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 152-160.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029135
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (1804KB) ( 4 )  
To explore the effect of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) on the shelf-life quality of agate red cherry, fresh fruit of agate red cherry was used as test material for the treatment and refrigeration. They were fumigated with 1-MCP at different initial addition for 2 h [0.5, 1.5 μL/L, ambient temperature (25±2) ℃] and then transferred to (1±0.5) ℃ storage for 7 d. Upon the ex-warehouse, they were packed in foam boxes and put into biological ice bags, which were simulated to transport at 35 ℃ and shake at a speed of 100 km/h. Afterwards, opened the box for 24 h and 48 h respectively, and conducted the shelf experiment in the refrigerated cabinet of 4 ℃. Relevant indicators were measured every 2 d and the total shelf life was 6 d. The results showed that the longer the simulated transportation, the gradually higher the temperature in the box. After the treatment of 1-MCP at the concentration of 1.5 μL/L, the simulated transportation could reach 48 h and maintained a lower rate of rot on the goods shelf for 2 d and 4 d (8.61% and 8.94% respectively). Compared to the contrast group, the treatment of 1-MCP could diminish the breathing rate of fruits, decrease the rot rate of fruits and postpone the fruit hardness during the shelf life, and lower the content of titrable acids and fruit stalk chlorophyll. Among them, 1-MCP with an initial addition level of 1.5 μL/L showed the best comprehensive fruit quality during shelf life after simulated transportation for 48 h.
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Study on the quality and volatile components of fresh bananas and vacuum freeze-dried bananas powder
陈铭中, 钟旭美, 孔令开, 陈勇, 叶颖娴
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 161-168.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029276
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML    PDF (4422KB) ( 6 )  
The quality and volatile components of three kinds of samples, which were fresh bananas, vacuum freeze-dried 24 h and 33 h banana powder, were studied. The water content, total phenols and antioxidant capacity of DPPH were analyzed. The volatile components were determined by HS-SPME-GC-MS and identified. Moreover, orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, volcano plots and Venn diagram were used to analyze the volatile components. Results showed that the water content of three kinds of banana samples was 80.32%, 4.15% and 2.67% respectively. The total phenolic content of banana powder at 24 h and 33 h after vacuum freeze-drying accounted for 75.07% and 12.04% of fresh bananas. The DPPH radical scavenging rate was 61.78% and 6.65% for fresh bananas. Furthermore, a total of 64 volatile components were identified in the three kinds of samples. The total volatile components of banana powder after vacuum freeze-drying for 24 h and 33 h accounted for 88.53% and 80.97% of fresh bananas. The aroma components of fresh bananas were mainly esters, aldehydes and ketones, while those of banana powder after freeze-drying were mainly esters and ketones, and the proportion of aldehydes was very low. The volatile components between a fresh banana and the two vacuum freeze-dried banana powder were larger, and the difference between the two vacuum freeze-dried banana powder was smaller. The vacuum freeze-drying time had a great influence on the quality and volatile components of banana powder, which affected the aroma components of banana powder. Considering the storage resistance, quality and aroma of banana powder, 24 h treatment was the best for the vacuum freeze-drying of 0.5 cm banana slices. This study provided a reference for the development of banana powder meal replacement food.
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Changes of ripening characteristics and volatile flavor compounds of accelerate-ripening yak milk semi-hard (cheddar) cheese
张心予, 张兰俊, 张玉, 陈炼红
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 169-175.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030505
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (1545KB) ( 4 )  
To study the ripening characteristics of yak milk semi-hard cheese and determine the optimal ripening time after ripening process, this experiment compared the texture and physicochemical properties of accelerate-ripening cheese with untreated cheese during ripening (20, 40, 60 and 80 d) and investigated the changes in volatile flavor substances of ripened cheese at different ripening stages. The results showed that the hardness, viscosity, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness of yak milk semi-hard cheese changed significantly (P<0.05) between 40 and 60 d after maturation. In terms of physicochemical properties, the moisture content gradually decreased, pH value increased, fat content decreased, and the acid value and peroxide value of accelerate-ripening cheese increased and were higher than those in control, indicating a good ripening effect. Sixty-six flavor compounds were detected during ripening of yak milk cheese by solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(SPME-GC-MS). The main characteristic flavor compounds included esters (butyl butyrate), acids (butyric acid), ketones (2-butanone), alcohols (1-butanol). The content of acids, ketones and alcohols in accelerate-ripening cheese increased significantly. In summary, the texture and nutrients of accelerate-ripening cheese reached high standards during 40-60 d of ripening, the content of characteristic flavor substances increased, and the ripening time was significantly shortened, which provided a theoretical basis for the rapid ripening and market development of yak milk semi-hard cheese.
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Effect of the ratio of rice and corn on the quality and microbial diversity of Zha-chili
席啦, 熊英梅, 王玉荣, 侯强川, 王婷, 杨莹, 郭壮
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 176-181.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030557
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (1591KB) ( 3 )  
Zha-chili is a characteristic fermented food with grains and peppers as the main ingredients, which is eaten in Hubei, Hunan, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guizhou and other places in China. In this study, rice and corn were used as raw materials to produce Zha-chili, and its quality was evaluated by bionic technology, and the microbial diversity was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that sour, bitter and salty were taste indexes with significant difference among samples, and aromatic substances, nitrogen oxides, methane and ethanol were volatile flavor substances with great differences. Bacteria in Zha-chili were mainly Lactobacillus (97.90%), which belongs to Firmicutes. The correlation analysis showed that adding a certain proportion of corn to the fermentation substrate could significantly increase the intensity of benign indexes such as sour and aromatic aroma, and reduce the intensity of inferior indexes such as bitter, salty and nitroxide compounds and thus improve the quality of Zha-chili.
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Optimization of headspace solid-phase microextraction conditions for volatile compounds in grape distilled spirits
孙丽君, 刘建学, 韩四海, 李佩艳, 郭金英, 罗登林
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 182-187.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030264
Abstract ( 18 )   HTML    PDF (1554KB) ( 14 )  
Volatile compounds play an important role in the flavor and quality of grape distilled spirits. In order to effectively analyze the types and contents of volatile compounds in grape distilled spirits, the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) conditions that affect the extraction efficiency were optimized. The combination of HS-SPME and GC-MS was used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the volatile compounds in grape distilled spirits, and the extraction conditions were optimized by single factor tests and response surface methodology. Results showed that the optimal extraction parameters of HS-SPME were 30 ℃, desorption time of 6 min, equilibrium time of 10 min, extraction time of 30 min, NaCl 0.20 g/mL and ethanol of 10% (on volume basis). Under the optimized conditions, the total peak area and peak number of volatile compounds were 3.494×108 and 34. Sixteen esters, six alcohols, one aldehyde and one phenol were successfully detected from grape distilled spirits. This study provides a simple and rapid determination method for the analysis of volatile compounds in grape distilled spirits, and it can also offer a reference for the determination of volatile compounds in other wines.
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Preliminary study on lipid production of Mortierella alpina regulated by glutamate metabolism
蔡毅博, 陈海琴, 张灏, 陈卫
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 188-195.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030523
Abstract ( 11 )   HTML    PDF (1819KB) ( 3 )  
This study aimed to analyze the effect of glutamate metabolism on lipid synthesis in the oleaginous filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina. The gene transcription level and enzyme activity of glutamate metabolism-related enzymes and total lipid production in M. alpina under the condition of glutamate supplementation were measured. The results showed that glutamate supplementation significantly regulated the transcription level of glutamate metabolism-related genes in M. alpina. The increased activities of NADP+ glutamate dehydrogenase and glutamate decarboxylase provided sufficient NADPH for the de novo synthesis of fatty acids, which increased the total cell lipid content by 3 g/L (about 10% of the dry weight). This study provides a reference for the analysis of amino acid-mediated microbial lipid synthesis mechanism.
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Study on the mechanism of inhibiting chilling injury of cucumber during low temperature storage by foam box packaging
肖徐, 何晓梅, 张锶苑, 贾嘉懿, 尹杰文, 张敏
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 196-203.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029001
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (3733KB) ( 7 )  
To explore the mechanism of foam box packaging inhibiting the chilling injury of cucumber during refrigeration, the unpacked 4 ℃ storage group (control group), the unpacked simulation foam box temperature and humidity storage group (simulation group), and the 4 ℃ storage group after foam box packaging (foam box group) were used to study the effects of foam box gradually cooling and gas microenvironment on the chilling injury. Results showed that compared with the control group, both the simulation group and the foam box group could inhibit chilling injury index and superoxide anion (·O-2) production rate. They also reduced the respiration rate, relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and maintained the high hardness of cucumber by gradually cooling. At the same time, the contents of total phenols and anthocyanins were increased, and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were enhanced to improve the cold resistance of cucumber and inhibit the generation of chilling injury. The effect of the foam box group is better than that of the simulation group. In addition, gradual cooling plays a greater role than controlling the gas microenvironment from the perspective of the cooling damage inhibition effect.
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Improvement of the resistance to Aspergillus flavus contamination in the fermentation of red fermented rice using Bacillus velezensis
李昱涵, 付瑞燕
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 204-209.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030418
Abstract ( 20 )   HTML    PDF (4890KB) ( 5 )  
The pollution problem in red fermented rice (RFR) fermentation cannot be ignored, since it will affect the production and quality of RFR. We found that RFR inoculation fermentation (with Monacus purpureus) was more contaminated by Aspergillus flavus than natural fermentation. However, pollution does not often occur in RFR fermentation when inoculated with commercially available RFR. It was speculated that the open production of commercially available RFR may introduce certain inhibitors that can inhibit A. flavus. To reduce the occurrence of contamination caused by A. flavus, a Bacillus velezensis strain Y5 that can inhibit the growth of A. flavus spores was isolated from commercially available RFR, and the fermentation conditions for improving the resistance to A. flavus contamination in fermentation of RFR were optimized. Confirmatory experiment results showed that inoculation of strain Y5 with small amount in the early stage of RFR fermentation could effectively reduce the contamination rate of A. flavus under extensive condition and would not affect M. purpureus to produce pigment. Hence, this strain can be used as an auxiliary strain in RFR fermentation to ensure the smooth fermentation.
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The comparative study on the performance of two kinds of egg white protein-chitosan emulsions loaded with β-carotene
高博, 潘晴楣, 张志鹏, 胥伟
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 210-216.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029403
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (8324KB) ( 7 )  
In this study, egg white protein-chitosan mixed emulsion and egg white protein-chitosan double-layer emulsion were prepared and loaded with β-carotene, respectively. The thermal stability, digestion resistance, and storage stability of these two emulsions were compared by measuring the particle size, emulsion index, β-carotene retention rate, and other indicators. The results showed that after treatment at 80 °C, the emulsion index of mixed emulsion and double-layer emulsion increased by 54% and 14.6% compared with the treatment at 20 °C, respectively. At 80 °C, the retention rate of β-carotene in the double-layer emulsion was 74%, which was 21% higher than that in the mixed emulsion. The double-layer emulsion showed higher thermal stability. During in vitro digestion, the double-layer emulsion maintained an intact droplet structure, while the mixed emulsion showed a demulsification phenomenon. And the bioaccessibility of β-carotene in the double emulsion was 14.7% higher than that in the mixed emulsion. Moreover, after 15 days of storage, the particle sizes of the mixed emulsion and the double-layer emulsion were 30.2% and 16.1% larger than those of the fresh emulsion, respectively. The retention rate of β-carotene in the double-layer emulsion was 18.3% higher than that in the mixed emulsion, and the peroxide value of oil in the double emulsion was 23.4 meq/kg lower than that in the mixed emulsion. In summary, the double-layer emulsion had the best preservation effect on β-carotene and the oxidation stability of oil in the emulsion. This study provided a new approach for the efficient delivery and absorption of functional active substances such as β-carotene and polyphenols.
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Preparation and activity of highland barley fermentation spent polypeptide
杨婷婷, 孙万成, 罗毅皓, 冯声宝
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 217-224.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030401
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML    PDF (6415KB) ( 8 )  
Highland barley fermentation spent (HBFS) is a wine spent from pure grain, which is rich in nutrients, including high quality proteins, and can be used to prepare peptides. To further investigate the functional activity of HBFS peptides, HBFS proteins were extracted by alcohol-base, alkali and acid methods, purified using a protein purifier, and the purified proteins were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively, and sobriety and in vitro antioxidant activity experiments were carried out. The results showed that the yield of protein extraction by the alcohol-base method was higher than that of the other two methods, with a yield of (7.52±0.12)%. Twenty-nine proteins were identified in the qualitative and quantitative analysis, and eleven proteins were differentially expressed by the alcohol-base method compared with the alkaline method. The differential proteins were mainly related to microbial metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. In addition, the optimal effect on ADH activation was (22.58±0.53)% at a peptide concentration of 10 mg/mL. And when the peptide concentration was 21 μg/L, the scavenging effects on DPPH radical, ·OH and ·O-2 were (70.76±1.35)%, (52.05±2.09)% and (55.88±1.99)%, respectively. The results validate the possibility of functional active peptide extraction in HBFS and also provide a reference for subsequent studies on the functionality of HBFS peptides.
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The detection of biogenic amines in skipjack tuna by using the ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method
刘洋帆, 李绪鹏, 冯阳, 王迪, 陈胜军, 杨贤庆, 吴燕燕, 邓建朝
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 225-230.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029408
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (1523KB) ( 4 )  
This study established a detection method for spermine, spermidine, tyramine, tryptamine, histamine, β-phenylethylamine, putrescine and cadaverine for 8 kinds of biogenic amines by utilizing ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method (UPLC-MS/MS). The sample was extracted and decontaminated by 0.2% acidified acetonitrile and dichloromethane separately, and then separated using a C18 column. Methanol and 0.5% formic acid in water were used as the mobile phase for gradient elution. Mass spectrometry data were obtained by electrospray positive ion (ESI+) scanning in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode, and an internal standard method was used for quantification. Results showed that 8 kinds of biogenic amines could be separated within 6 minutes, and the linearity was good with the correlation coefficient R between 0.995 6 and 0.999 6. The detection limit was in the range of 75-150 μg/kg and the quantification limit was in the range of 250-500 μg/kg. Moreover, the average recovery rate of the sample was between 82%-113% and the relative standard deviation was between 2.3% and 9.7%. This method developed here was simple, fast, and had good sensitivity, recovery, and precision, which was suitable for the determination of biogenic amines in skipjack tuna.
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Determination of cyromazine residues in 14 kinds of vegetables by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QQQMS)
俞所银, 闫晴, 梁佳
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 231-237.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029826
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (3507KB) ( 7 )  
A method for the determination of cyromazine residues in 14 kinds of vegetables including garlic chives by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UPLC-QQQMS) was established. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, and then 5 mL supernatant liquid was evaporated with a nitrogen stream and dissolved in 1 mL acetonitrile. The dissolving solution was separated with a hydrophilic chromatography column by isocratic elution using 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate solution containing 0.1% formic acid with acetonitrile as mobile phases. Then, it was detected by electrospray ion source positive ion detection mode and multiple reaction monitoring modes, and quantified by the matrix-matched external standard calibration curves. Cyromazine had a good linear relationship in the concentration range of 0.5-100 μg/L with good correlation coefficients (r>0.99). The average recoveries ranged from 80% to 113% for cyromazine at 3 spiked levels of 2.0, 4.0, and 20.0 μg/kg. The relative standard deviations (RSD, n=3) were in the range of 0.56%-7.21%. The limits of detection were 0.5 μg/kg (S/N=3) and the limits of quantification detection were 2.0 μg/kg(S/N=10).
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Study on the correlation between free amino acid content and taste of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with different sizes based on UPLC-Q-Trap-MS combined with chemometrics
鲍守民, 陈生蓉, 田海宁, 孟玉琼, 马睿
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 238-243.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029903
Abstract ( 15 )   HTML    PDF (3963KB) ( 6 )  
A method for the analysis of free amino acids in fillets by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometer(UPLC-Q-Trap-MS) was established. Combined with chemometrics, the correlation between the content of 16 free amino acids and the taste of fillets from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of different sizes was studied. The analysis conditions were as follows: The chromatographic separation was performed using an Acquity UPLC BEH Amide (2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 μm) column and the temperature of the column was maintained at 35 ℃. The mobile phases were 5 mmol/L ammonium formate in water containing 0.10% formic acid and 5 mmol/L ammonium formate in acetonitrile containing 0.10% formic acid, respectively, using a binary gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The detection was carried out by electrospray ionization in positive modes and multiple reaction monitoring modes. The difference in taste profiles was investigated by taste activity value and principal component analysis. Results showed that the calibration curves of 16 kinds of amino acids exhibited good linearities within their test ranges (r>0.99). The average recovery rates of the free amino acids in the rainbow trout sample ranged from 98.38%-103.57% and RSD was 0.34%-2.89% (n=6). The contents of free amino acids and the total taste activity value were significantly different in fillets of rainbow trout with different body sizes (P<0.01). The larva rainbow trout tasted sweet and bitter characteristics and the middle rainbow trout showed fresh, sweet and bitter taste characteristics. While the mature rainbow trout showed only bitter taste characteristics. This study provides a reference for the evaluation of the fillet quality of rainbow trout.
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The comparative analysis of sensory and flavor quality of black garlic prepared by microwave and freezing pretreatment
张学慧, 刘肖, 周才琼
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 244-251.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029321
Abstract ( 14 )   HTML    PDF (1890KB) ( 6 )  
The flavor and quality characteristics of black garlic prepared by temperature and humidity control fermentation of frozen garlic and microwave garlic were compared and analyzed. The results of color and texture analysis showed that the blackening of the two pretreated garlic could be completed after 12 days of fermentation, and the ΔE was between 73.60 and 75.40. After the two kinds of pretreated garlic were prepared into black garlic, the water content of black garlic decreased significantly. The hardness, viscoelasticity, and mastication of black garlic decreased (P<0.05) which gave the black garlic a soft and waxy taste, but there was no significant difference between different pretreatments. The results of taste quality analysis showed that the soluble sugar and total acid contents of freezing and microwave pretreatment increased significantly, the soluble sugar and total acid contents were 4.19 and 4.37 times than that of the control group, and the total acid contents were 5.02 and 4.83 times than before fermentation, respectively. The content of allicin in spicy smell and polyphenols in bitter taste decreased significantly (P<0.05) which gave the black garlic a strong sweet and sour taste. However, there was no difference between the two pretreatments. According to the analysis of fresh garlic and pretreatment garlic, volatile sulfur compounds were the spicy smell which included diene propyl disulfide ether and diene propyl three thioether. While, after fermented into black garlic with garlic sweet smell, the diene propyl disulfide rose, meanwhile, the esters, thiophene, and furan gave the black charcoal roasted garlic flavor and aroma sweet. Freezing pretreatment and fermentation of 1,3,5-trithiane in black garlic had unique garlic flavor, while microwave pretreatment and fermentation of black garlic had higher 2-methyl-1,3-dithiane, phenyl ethyl butyrate, and furan with charcoal roast flavor and fruit-sweet flavor. Results showed that different pretreatments could affect the flavor of black garlic and microwave pretreatment was the best.
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Rapid evaluation of blueberry freshness based on visible/near-infrared spectroscopy
曾明飞, 朱玉杰, 冯国红, 朱金艳, 刘思岐
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 252-259.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030083
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (3504KB) ( 6 )  
Aiming at the deficiency of the traditional artificial sensory evaluation method, this paper established two rapid evaluation models of blueberry freshness by combining visible/near-infrared spectroscopy technology with a support vector machine (SVM) and random forest (RF). Turquoise blueberries stored at 10 ℃ for different days were detected by visible/near-infrared spectrometer. Six physical and chemical indexes including storage days, appearance and quality loss rate, hardness, soluble solid and vitamin C, were comprehensively considered to calculate the comprehensive score of freshness. The spectral data were preprocessed by S-G convolution smoothing, and then the spectral characteristic information was extracted by principal component analysis. To make the selection of optimal principal components more reasonable, a particle swarm optimization algorithm was used to optimize the parameters of SVM, and the number of principal components was tested within the range of [1,20]. Combined with the optimal classification accuracy value under the five-fold cross test, the optimal number of principal components was determined to be 5. The previous 5 principal component scores were input variables, and the freshness category was output quantity. Two kinds of rapid freshness evaluation models were established based on SVM and RF. The results showed that the recognition accuracy of the training set and a test set of the SVM model was 97.78% and 88% respectively, while for the RF model they were 100% and 84% respectively. These results showed that visible/near-infrared spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis and SVM could be used for the rapid evaluation of blueberry freshness.
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Rapid determination of chemical components in fruit plum based on ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry technique
夏梦秋, 王星晨, 杨兰香, 岳婧怡, 王瑞, 曹侃, 程旺开
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 260-264.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.031216
Abstract ( 20 )   HTML    PDF (2572KB) ( 8 )  
ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used to determine the chemical components in fruit plum. The analysis conditions were as follows. The chromatographic separation was performed using a ZORBAX SB-C18 (3.0 mm×100 mm, 3.5 μm) column, and the temperature of the column was maintained at 35 ℃. The mobile phases were 0.2% formic acid (A) and acetonitrile (including 0.2% formic acid) (B), respectively, using a binary gradient elution at the flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. Results showed that sixteen chemical components were successfully determined in fruit plum, including 10 organic acids, 4 flavonoids, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, and bitter amygdidine. The main chemical compositions of fruit plum were successfully and quickly determined in this paper and the results could provide the theoretical basis for further study of the efficacy basis and mechanism of action.
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Discriminant analysis of wines from different regions of China based on mineral elements
李彩虹, 开建荣, 闫玥, 葛谦, 王芳, 张静, 杨春霞, 王彩艳
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 265-271.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030579
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (1880KB) ( 9 )  
By analyzing the differences of mineral element contents in wines from different producing areas in China, combined with stoichiometry, the effective traceability indexes were screened out, and a wine origin discrimination model was constructed. In this study, 72 Cabernet Sauvignon wine samples were collected from six producing areas, including East Helan Mountain Area, Shacheng, Qingxu, Wuwei, Bohai Bay and Yunnan Plateau. The contents of 58 mineral elements such as Ag, Al and As were determined using microwave digestion-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Combined with analysis of variance (ANOVA), principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher discriminant analysis, an origin traceability model of wines was constructed. The contents of 35 mineral elements out of 58 in wines were significantly different in different producing areas. Through PCA, 14 principal components were extracted from 58 mineral elements, representing 85.351% information of the total indexes. The discrimination model based on Fisher discriminant analysis was constructed. The overall rates of correct discrimination of back substitution test and cross test were 98.6% and 84.7%, respectively, which can basically discriminate wines from different producing areas. This study proves that the mineral element traceability technique can be used to discriminate the origin of wines.
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Nutrient analysis of domestic goat milk powder for middle-aged and elderly people
钱文文, 辛宝, 任晓梅, 马诚, 万红昌, 张萌, 李晨, 李宏, 邓欣怡, 赵嘉仪, 白亚亚, 胡美枝
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 272-278.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032446
Abstract ( 10 )   HTML    PDF (1302KB) ( 5 )  
Taking 82 domestic goat milk powder sold in the market for middle-aged and elderly people as the research object, this study made a systematic analysis from the aspects of nutrient labelling rate, fortification rate, content distribution, the contribution rate of energy and nutrients provided by daily intake of goat milk powder, and ingredients to accumulate data for the formula design of goat milk powder. This study found that the fortification rates of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin C, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, and dietary fiber in the commercial goat milk powder for middle-aged and elderly people were 52.44%-96.34%. In this paper, the maximum, minimum, upper quartile (P25), lower quartile (P75), and median (P50) were used to describe the distribution of energy and nutrients. Results showed that the content of some nutrients in different brands of goat milk powder varied greatly. The contribution rate of nutrients was evaluated by the ratio of energy and nutrients provided by daily intake of goat milk powder to the Chinese dietary reference intakes (DRls) for middle-aged and elderly people. Results showed that the contribution rate of vitamin A, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin B6, folic acid, calcium, and iron were relatively high, accounting for 30%-44% of the daily target values of each nutrient. The product highlighted its market positioning and selling points by adding new resources food, edible Chinese herbs, dietary fiber, probiotics, and special ingredients. As an important dietary source for middle-aged and elderly people, dairy enterprises should strengthen the reasonableness and scientific character of milk powder formula design, they also should help the public to establish a correct consumption view.
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Products analysis of children's milk powder of infant milk powder enterprises
余妙灵, 包斌
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 279-285.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029301
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (1479KB) ( 8 )  
In this paper, 141 children's milk powder products were statistically analyzed in terms of product name, applicable age, nutrition ingredient list, functional characteristics and packaging specifications.Results showed that there were mainly 4 product names, but at least 13 age segmentations.Age segmentation and products name could not be used for the separation of the milk powder.Moreover, there was no significant difference in nutrient content (P>0.05) either.Besides, there were problems of excess protein and imbalance of %E (percentage of energy provided) of protein, fat and carbohydrate.Considering the main functions, which included intelligence, immunity, vision, growth, digestion and absorption and intestinal health, it was a shortage of mouth health and anti-adolescent obesity.There were13 kinds of packaging specifications, the traditional 800 g cans were the most accounting for 53.19%.However, it was lack of new packaging method.In summary, based on clarifying product names and applicable ages, the innovation of product research and development needs to further analyze and explore children's physiological development characteristics, social activities and gender.Therefore, according to the standards of comprehensive nutrition and energy balance, the products can be divided into two categories:boys' and girls'.New products should be developed with the purpose of mouth health, anti-adolescent obesity, etc.
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Effect and mechanism of chemical/physical methods to modulate the structure of myoglobin and meat color
柏怡文, 柯志刚, 周绪霞, 丁玉庭
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 286-292.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029081
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (1333KB) ( 8 )  
Meat color, which is mainly determined by the structure of myoglobin, is an important factor affecting consumers' purchase intention. The fresh meat is bright red because it is rich in oxymyoglobin. With the decrease of freshness, oxymyoglobin is oxidized to metmyoglobin, and the meat color gradually becomes dark and brown which greatly weakens its commercial value. It is of great significance to modulate the meat color by changing the structure of myoglobin for improving its commercial value. This paper reviews the chemical and physical methods which can modulate the meat color by changing the structure of myoglobin, including colored by nitrite, botanical coloring agents, nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), cold plasma (CP), plasma-activated water (PAW), etc. It looks forward to the operation mechanisms, advantages and disadvantages, and application prospects of the above methods, to provide a reference for related research and industrial applications.
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The interactions between proteins and anthocyanins based on covalent/ non-covalent binding: A review
袁婷婷, 周子艺, 赵吉春, 李富华, 曾凯芳, 明建
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 293-299.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030316
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (1398KB) ( 5 )  
Protein is the material basis of life activities and an important component of food nutrition. Anthocyanins are plant pigments that are widely found in nature. They have anti-oxidation, anti-inflammatory, anti-ageing, anti-cancer, and other physiological activities. Anthocyanins are very sensitive to the environment and are prone to degradation or decomposition. However, covalent and non-covalent interactions with proteins can improve this phenomenon, as well as the functional properties and nutritional quality of proteins. This article reviewed the interaction forms and influencing factors of anthocyanins and proteins and analyzed the effects of their interactions on the properties of anthocyanins and proteins, providing a theoretical basis for the development of anthocyanin-rich protein foods or functional ingredients.
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Research progress of citrus waste utilization
车金鑫, 郭虹雨, 陈珂琴, 陶能国
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 300-306.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029452
Abstract ( 21 )   HTML    PDF (1339KB) ( 11 )  
Citrus is one of the most widely cultivated fruit crops at home and abroad. It is rich in essential vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and other bioactive substances, such as polyphenols, alkaloids, natural pigments, and terpenoids. With the continuous expansion of the citrus planting area and processing scale, citrus waste in China is also increasing year by year which resulted in environmental pollution. The nutritional value of citrus waste was analyzed, and three ways of resource utilization, value-added utilization and high-value utilization of citrus waste were discussed in this article, to provide a reference for improving the comprehensive utilization rate of citrus waste and developing the potential value of citrus waste.
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Research progress on the nutritional and functional components of blueberry leaves and their biological activities
蔡少仪, 王琴, 陶亮
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 307-313.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030098
Abstract ( 13 )   HTML    PDF (1472KB) ( 7 )  
Blueberry is a kind of medicinal and edible plant. Blueberry resources are widely distributed and with high production in China. Blueberry leaves are rich in bioactive substances such as polyphenols (flavonoids, chlorogenic acid, proanthocyanidins, etc.) and polysaccharides. Blueberry leaves have a series of significant pharmacological effects such as anti-oxidation, lowering blood sugar and blood fat, anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory as well as improving cardiovascular and cerebrovascular fitness. By introducing the nutritious and medicinal ingredients of blueberry leaves and summarizing its research progress and application potential, it provides ideas for the development of blueberry leaves as a green resource.
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Research progress on properties and preparation methods of nanocomposite films and their applications in meat and meat products
邢根安, 李洪军, 李芳, 黎轩铭, 王春幸, 陈茹, 贺稚非
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 314-320.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030018
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML    PDF (1836KB) ( 9 )  
Meat is rich in protein and has high nutritional value, so it is prone to spoilage which causes huge economic losses to the meat industry. Appropriate packaging method plays an important role in maintaining the quality of meat. However, plastic packaging is not biodegradable and has a negative impact on the environment. In addition, biopolymer-based films are biodegradable, low cost and non-toxic, but their wide application are limited by poor mechanical and barrier properties. Nanotechnology has shown great potential in meat packaging, and many nanomaterials have been introduced into biopolymer matrices to make nanocomposite films, which significantly improve the properties of the films, such as mechanical and barrier properties, thermal stability, antibacterial and antioxidant properties. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the properties and preparation methods of nanocomposite films and summarize their application status in meat and meat products. It also provides an outlook on the future development of the films, with a view to providing a reference for further applications of nanocomposite films in the field of food packaging.
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Research progress of kombucha beverages prepared from different raw materials and their nutritional function
王茜, 伍小丫, 田文欣, 侯晨梓, 张宝善, 赵育
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 321-328.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030742
Abstract ( 22 )   HTML    PDF (1898KB) ( 8 )  
Traditional kombucha is a functional beverage fermented by tea fungus and sweetened tea. With the growing diversified needs of consumers, a variety of new kombucha beverages with different flavors and health benefits have emerged. This paper summarizes different raw materials used in kombucha beverages, including tea, fruits and vegetable juices, herbs, dairy products as well as its by-products, and also the corresponding fermentation process, nutritional compositions and functions. This review will provide useful references for developing and selecting new raw materials and formulas for kombucha beverage. It will also provide a theoretical basis for developing kombucha beverages with special flavors and specific nutritional functions, in order to promote the development of kombucha beverage industry chain.
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Research progress of plant polyphenols regulating meat protein oxidation and its application in meat products
常海军, 熊杰, 周文斌, 伯朝英
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 329-337.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.030339
Abstract ( 17 )   HTML    PDF (1710KB) ( 9 )  
Meat protein is a high-quality protein source for the human diet. Due to the influence of oxidation promoters and much structural damage during processing, meat protein will inevitably be exposed to oxidative stress. Oxidation will induce the change in meat protein structure, and then affect the processing performance, flavor characteristics and nutritional value of meat products, ultimately affecting the quality of meat and meat products. The heat-induced gel properties of meat proteins are the basis for processing meat products and directly affect the quality of products. Moderate oxidation leads to the unfolding of meat proteins and further enhancement of their gel properties. Excessive oxidation leads to covalent crosslinking mediated inappropriate and irreversible aggregation, thereby reducing the gel properties of proteins. As a natural antioxidant, plant polyphenols have become a research hotspot in the field of meat science and technology to study their induction and regulation of meat protein oxidation and its effect on functional characteristics. To meet the contemporary demand for “green, healthy and nutritious” meat products, plant polyphenols have been taken as research objects to explore their effects on the oxidation of muscle fat and meat protein (myofibrillar protein) as well as the regulation of gel and other quality properties. Studies showed that the antioxidant effect of plant polyphenols is remarkable, which could effectively inhibit the oxidation of fat and protein, and improve the quality properties of meat such as color, tenderness, cooking loss, water retention, and gel by regulating the degree of oxidation. In this paper, the mechanism of meat oxidation, the antioxidant mechanism of plant polyphenols, the interaction between plant polyphenols and protein, the regulation of plant polyphenols on meat protein oxidation and gel properties and their effects on meat quality were reviewed to provide reference and theoretical support for the rational application of plant polyphenols in green meat processing.
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Research progress of bovine milk-derived neuroprotective peptides
吴秀英, 赖孟瑄, 姜云芸, 刘红霞, 马海然
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2022, 48 (20): 338-344.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032491
Abstract ( 16 )   HTML    PDF (1820KB) ( 4 )  
With the severe problem of population aging, the number of patients with neurodegenerative diseases is increasing annually, which brings troubles to public health and leads to more social problems. Bovine milk-derived neuroprotective peptides attenuate symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease by inhibiting neuro-inflammation and β-amyloid plaque deposition caused by oxidative damage and cause no side effects. Recent researches related to milk-derived neuroprotective peptides are mainly efficacy evaluation, but there is still few relevant and comprehensive research focus on their mechanism in vivo. This review focuses on bovine milk-derived bioactive peptides and summarizes researches about their structure-activity relationships, neuroprotective efficacy and mechanism, which confirms the unique value of those bioactive peptides in neuroprotection.
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DOI: null
The inhibiting effect of flavonoid “astilbin” on pancreatic lipase
Astilbin is a dihydroflavonol that is widely distributed in many foods and plants. Our previous study showed astilbin could significantly decrease the body weight gain and intraperitoneal adipose tissue weight, as wel. . .
DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.015839

2022
Vol.48
No.19 
2022-10-15
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2020
Vol.46
No.24 
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2019-04-15
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2019-03-15
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2018
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2018-11-25
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2018-09-25
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2017
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2017-10-25
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2017-06-25
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2016
Vol.42
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2016-12-25
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No.10
2016-10-25
pp.1-0
No.9
2016-09-25
pp.1-0
No.8
2016-08-25
pp.1-0
No.7
2016-07-25
pp.1-0
No.6
2016-06-25
pp.1-0
No.5
2016-05-25
pp.1-0
No.4
2016-04-25
pp.1-0
No.3
2016-03-25
pp.1-0
No.2
2016-02-25
pp.1-0
No.1
2016-01-25
pp.1-0
2015
Vol.41
No.12 
2015-12-25
pp.1-0
No.11
2015-11-25
pp.1-0
No.10
2015-10-25
pp.1-0
No.9
2015-09-25
pp.1-0
No.8
2015-08-25
pp.1-0
No.7
2015-07-25
pp.1-0
No.6
2015-06-25
pp.1-0
No.5
2015-05-25
pp.1-0
No.4
2015-04-25
pp.1-0
No.3
2015-03-25
pp.1-0
No.2
2015-02-25
pp.1-0
No.1
2015-01-25
pp.1-0
2014
Vol.40
No.12 
2014-12-25
pp.1-234
No.11
2014-11-25
pp.1-275
No.10
2014-10-25
pp.1-244
No.09
2014-09-25
pp.1-242
No.08
2014-08-25
pp.1-267
No.07
2014-07-25
pp.1-250
No.06
2014-06-25
pp.1-244
No.05
2014-05-25
pp.1-262
No.04
2014-04-25
pp.1-242
No.03
2014-03-25
pp.1-252
No.02
2014-02-25
pp.1-238
No.01
2014-01-25
pp.1-253
2013
Vol.39
No.12 
2013-12-25
pp.1-216
No.11
2013-11-25
pp.1-267
No.10
2013-10-25
pp.1-258
No.09
2013-09-25
pp.1-218
No.08
2013-08-25
pp.1-249
No.07
2013-07-25
pp.1-240
No.06
2013-06-25
pp.1-234
No.05
2013-05-25
pp.1-255
No.04
2013-04-25
pp.1-242
No.03
2013-03-25
pp.1-221
No.02
2013-02-25
pp.1-249
No.01
2013-01-25
pp.1-234
2012
Vol.38
No.12 
2012-12-25
pp.1-203
No.11
2012-11-25
pp.1-214
No.10
2012-10-25
pp.1-216
No.09
2012-09-25
pp.1-210
No.08
2012-08-25
pp.1-234
No.07
2012-07-25
pp.1-215
No.06
2012-06-25
pp.1-228
No.05
2012-05-25
pp.1-239
No.04
2012-04-25
pp.1-227
No.03
2012-03-25
pp.1-197
No.02
2012-02-25
pp.1-241
No.01
2012-01-25
pp.1-237
2011
Vol.37
No.12 
2011-12-25
pp.1-212
No.11
2011-11-25
pp.1-245
No.10
2011-10-25
pp.1-228
No.09
2011-09-25
pp.1-239
No.08
2011-08-25
pp.1-225
No.07
2011-07-25
pp.1-239
No.06
2011-06-25
pp.1-237
No.05
2011-05-25
pp.1-242
No.04
2011-04-25
pp.1-246
No.03
2011-03-25
pp.1-238
No.02
2011-02-25
pp.1-223
No.01
2011-01-25
pp.1-214


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