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2022年招聘启事
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Governing Body: China Light Industry Council
Organizers: China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries
China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries
Editor-in-chef: Chi Cheng
Associate Editor-in-chef: Honghua Lin
Editor-in-charge: Yongjie Yao, Biying Li
Editor: Yan Dai, Xin Li
Editor (Art): Xuehan Yu
Editor (English): Biyun Zhang
Editorial Board Member (English): Yutong Huang, Zhengxiang Wang, Fei Xu
Issuer: Fang Liu
Frequency of Publication: every half-month
Place of Publication: Beijing
ISSN 0253-990X
CN 11-1802/TS
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As one of the essential amino acids,厶-valine plays an important role in physioloxy and biochemistro. Pyruvate io not only the precursor nee......
Current Issue In Press Online First Archive Top Read Top Downloaded
<Food and Fermentation Industries (F&FI)> is a scientific journal that represents the development of modern food and fermentation technology in China. <F&FI> mainly publishes research papers that investigate aspects that are relevant to the development of food and fermentation industries. For example, raw materials, adjuvants, technology, packaging, equipment, monitoring, safety, comprehensive utilization etc. Also, <F&FI> publishes reviews that review the development trend of technology regarding food and fermentation. <F&FI> is popular among producers, researchers, designers, and mangers in the field of food and fermentation. <F&FI> consists of the following sections: research reports, field reports of production and research, analysis and determination, reviews and special features, and technology innovation etc.
  23 February 2022, Volume 47 Issue 24 Previous Issue   
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Mining and preliminary verification of genes involved in the high heterologous protein production of Corynebacterium glutamicum based on whole-genome resequencing
MENG Lihong, LIU Xiuxia, YANG Yankun, BAI Zhonghu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027411
Abstract ( 12 )   HTML    PDF (2509KB) ( 10 )  
Food-safe strain Corynebacterium glutamicum can be used as an excellent chassis cell for industrial production of high-value products. It is a potential host for the expression of recombinant proteins due to its good secretion system. In order to optimize the chassis cells and improve their heterologous protein expression ability, genes in C. glutamicum which can highly express heterologous protein were mined and verified. On the basis of whole-genome resequencing of C. glutamicum, bioinformatics was used to mine single-nucleotide polymorphisms(SNP) genes and their conserved domains. The recombinant strains with overexpression or knockout of SNP genes were constructed to evaluate their(SNP) growth and the expression ability of heterologous proteins EGFP and rtPTH. The resequencing data of high heterologous protein production strains were mined. There were 33 SNPs, mapped to five genes. Among them, SNP recombinant strains over-2370 and ko-973-974 had the highest fluorescence intensity, and the production of rtPTH by fermentation was nearly two-folds higher than that of wild type. This study has successfully mined genes involved in the high yield of heterologous protein, GL002370 and GL000974. These findings will help to obtain optimized chassis cells and provide guidance for in-depth research on target genes that can increase protein production.
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Characteristics and combined bacteriostasis of endolysin and holin in phage EC-p9 and SM-p2
SHI Dongling, XIE Tianhui, SHI Hui
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 7-12.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027556
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (1512KB) ( 3 )  
The endolysin and holin of phage are new bacteriostatic agents with great potential and prospect. Lysis activity and bacteria resistance for Lys 9, Lys 2, Hol 9 and Hol 2 were studied. The stability of Lys 9, Lys 2, Hol 9 and Hol 2 to temperature and pH were evaluated by plate count using endolysin and holin of Escherichia coli O157:H7 phage EC-P9 and Salmonella phage SM-P2. The combined antibacterial effect of endolysin, holin and their mixtures was also determined. The results showed that Lys 9, Lys 2, Hol 9 and Hol 2 had strong bactericidal ability and the highest lysing activity of bacteria were 61.348%, 81.120%, 74.251% and 83.356%, respectively. Lys 9, Lys 2, Hol 9 and Hol 2 had excellent stability in a wide range of temperature and pH. The bacteria did not develop resistance to Lys 9, Lys 2, Hol 9 and Hol 2 within 12 generations. In addition, endolysin and holin showed synergistic effect on the inhibition of bacteria. The experimental results provide a theoretical basis for the combined antibacterial effect of endolysin and holin in phage.
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Utilization characteristics of stachyose by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus
WU Jiaying, CHEN Minxuan, JIN Tianci, WANG Shunhe, CUI Shumao, TANG Xin, MAO Bingyong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 13-20.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027433
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2102KB) ( 3 )  
The ability of utilizing stachyose was determined for 32 strains of Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, 15 strains were found to utilize stachyose, including Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium dentium, Bifidobacterium longum ssp. longum, Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paragasseri, Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus ruminis and Lactobacillus salivarius. By analyzing the content of stachyose and raffinose in the bacterial culture supernatant, the activity of α-galactosidase and the draft genome, the differences in the utilization of stachyose between Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus were found. Some Bifidobacterium strains could intake stachyose by msmEFG transporter, which was then hydrolyzed by the enzymes such as α-galactosidase, β-fructofuranosidase, α-glucosidase and oligo-1,6-glucosidase. Some Lactobacillus could intake stachyose by permease or ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transport system and then hydrolyzed in the cell. Some bacteria had extracellular α-galactosidase, which could hydrolyze stachyose outside the cell initially for further utilization, especially B. longum ssp. longum L28 and L. reuteri L17. This study focused on the characteristics of stachyose utilization by Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus, which will be valuable for the future research on the relationships between stachyose and human health.
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Construction and optimization of bsrE/SR5 posttranscriptional regulation system in Bacillus subtilis
XU Yaqing, TANG Yao, SUN Yuqian, YIN Guobin, WANG Yang, KANG Zhen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 21-27.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027238
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (4523KB) ( 3 )  
Bacillus subtilis is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) organism, which has unique advantages in the fermentation field as a chassis cell. However, compared with the most widely used prokaryotic production host Escherichia coli and eukaryotic host Saccharomyces cerevisiae, B. subtilis is limited in the biotechnological research owing to the lack of genetic regulatory elements. In the present study, through comparison with bsrG/SR4, a new modulation via the small RNA (sRNA)-dependent operation system (MS-DOS) based on another type I toxin-antitoxin system bsrE/SR5 was constructed successfully, whose inhibition rate was 88.8%. This system provided a new post-transcriptional regulatory tool for B. subtilis gene regulation. Then, the truncation of SR5 was investigated. The SR5 mutant maintained high activity (83.8% inhibition rate) in the case of retaining only the terminator sequence. The truncated SR5 could further reduce the metabolic pressure of the bacteria, and thus could be directly added to the plasmid by designing primers since its fragment is short (only 37 nt), providing convenience for its application. The construction of the bsrE/SR5 post-transcriptional regulatory system enriches the MS-DOS regulatory system library which will provide more gene regulation tools for B. subtilis and promote the development of B. subtilis in basic and applied research.
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Structural characterization of Ejiao peptide-iron chelates with potential hematopoietic effect
CAO Congcong, GUAN Lingjuan, TU Piaohan, CAI Pingli, CHENG Xiangrong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 28-34.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027393
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (3700KB) ( 4 )  
In this study, simulated digestion in vitro and chamber model were adopted to evaluate the ferrous iron-chelating capacity and iron absorption facilitation of Ejiao. The iron chelating ability of Ejiao increased by 16.22-fold after gastrointestinal digestion, with enhanced apparent permeability to improve iron absorption. After targeted isolation of Ejiao hydrolysates with iron chelating on immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), the Ejiao peptide-iron chelates were characterized by HPLC for molecular weight distribution and amino acid composition, LC-MS/MS for peptide sequences, fluorescence, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis for structural and physical properties. The results demonstrated that Ejiao peptides chelated with ferrous iron mainly attributed to peptides with molecular weight ranging from 180-2 000 Da (70.51%). Four high-intensity peptides were sequenced as GPAGPIGPV, LQGMPGERG, AGPPGADGQPGAK and LRGPRGDQGPVGRA. The increased carboxylic and amino groups from acidic and basic amino acids in Ejiao peptide composition afforded more sites for iron chelation. The iron chelation aggregated to form larger particles. This study supports peptide-iron chelates formed during digestion to be one of the bioactive components of Ejiao and indicates the promotion of ferrous iron absorption as a potential hematopoietic mechanism of Ejiao.
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Physicochemical characteristics and microbial diversity in wheat Qu during the fermentation of Sichuan Huangjiu
TANG Manqiu, XIA Yu, QIN Fengyang, WU Zhengyun, ZHANG Wenxue
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 35-40.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027514
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2518KB) ( 3 )  
The bacterial and fungal diversity during the fermentation of Sichuan Huangjiu (Chinese rice wine) wheat Qu was analyzed by high throughput sequencing. The results showed that, as for the bacterial community, Staphylococcus, Enterobacter and Kosakonia were the dominant bacteria in the early fermentation stage, and the community species were the most abundant on the fifth day of fermentation (at the peak temperature). As for the fungal community, Aspergillus was the dominant fungi during the whole fermentation, and its abundance decreased slightly as the fermentation went on. According to the results of the physicochemical characteristics of Huangjiu wheat Qu, the water content of wheat Qu decreased after the fermentation, while its saccharification power, liquefaction power, reducing sugar content and acidity all increased. The physicochemical indicators of wheat Qu exhibited a correlation with its microbial population structure. This study explored the dynamic changes of microorganisms in Huangjiu wheat Qu fermentation, deepened the comprehensive understanding of microbial community composition of Huangjiu wheat Qu, which provided a theoretical basis for the analysis of microbial metabolism mechanism in Huangjiu wheat Qu fermentation.
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Construction of high osmolarity resistant Komagataella phaffii strains based on two strategies of opening up the sources and reducing the efflux
ZHAO Tianyu, WANG Rongbin, WANG Pengcheng, BAI Zhonghu, YANG Yankun
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 41-47.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027386
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3679KB) ( 3 )  
It has been reported that the HOG (high osmolarity glycerol) pathway of Komagataella phaffii is different from that of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and K. phaffii has weak resistance of hyperosmotic stress, which limits its application of fermentation in industrial production. Therefore, it has practical value to construct an engineered K. phaffii strain with resistance to hyperosmotic stress. In our previous study, the strategy of introducing the exogenous glycerol synthesis genes ScGPD1 (glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1) and ScGPP2 (glycerol-3-phosphate phosphatase 2) into K. phaffii, was applied to enhance the ability of glycerol synthesis. As a result, the resistance to hyperosmotic stress was improved. In this study, another strategy, knocking out the glycerol accumulation negative genes glyceroporin FPS1 and glycerol kinase GUT1 in K. phaffii, was applied to reduce the efflux and metabolism of glycerol. Thus, the resistance to hyperosmotic stress was significantly improved. By combining the above two strategies, dual-strategy K. phaffii strains were constructed, and the resistance to hyperosmotic stress was further improved. It was proved that K. phaffii was not able to resist hyperosmotic stress by accumulating intracellular glycerol, mainly because the efflux and metabolism of glycerol made it difficult for accumulation, rather than insufficient glycerol synthesis ability. Finally, by knocking out HOG1, it was found that K. phaffii Hog1 had both negative and positive effects on the resistance to hyperosmotic stress, but it was collectively adverse to the resistance to hyperosmotic stress of K. phaffii.
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Identification and in vitro biological activity analysis of polyphenolic from Mohe blue honeysuckle
ZHU Guanbing, QIAO Jinli, HUYAN Wenjing, LIU Pei, ZHANG Yan, HUO Junwei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 48-55.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027169
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (3786KB) ( 3 )  
In this study, the anthocyanins and non anthocyanin polyphenols of Mohe blue honeysuckle were isolated and identified by high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS2), and their antioxidant activity, lipase inhibition activity, α-amylase inhibition activity, and α-glucosidase inhibition activity were analyzed. The results showed that blue honeysuckle fruits in Mohe contained 8 kinds of anthocyanins, among which the proportion of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside was significantly high, and the content of 5-caffeoylquinic acid was the highest among 24 kinds of non-anthocyanins. The contents of the total phenolics and the total anthocyanins in crude extracts of blue honeysuckle fruits in Mohe reached (108.52±6.80) mg GAE/100g DW and (23.36±0.54) mg C3G/100g DW, which showed strong antioxidant activity (201.19±9.97) μmol TE/g DW, (5.16±0.16) μmol TE/g DW, (658.18±9.73) μmol TE/g DW, and (414.79±2.08) μmol TE/g DW against DPPH, FRAP, ABTS, and ORAC assays, respectively. The results also showed certain biological activity of the inhibition activity of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase. The semi-inhibitory concentrations of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and lipase were 6.399 mg/mL, 11.73 mg/mL and 1.912 mg/mL, respectively. The results of this study provides scientific references and valuable insights for blue honeysuckle fruit in Mohe.
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Research on the quality of wolfberry from different production areas
LI Manyi, SHEN Tianchen, LIU Chunfeng, ZHENG Feiyun, NIU Chengtuo, LI Qi, WANG Jinjing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 56-63.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027271
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (9328KB) ( 3 )  
Wolfberry is a kind of raw material in traditional Chinese medicine. Its quality is related to the producing area. In order to provide a reference for the quality evaluation of wolfberry and identification of their origin,4 kinds of wolfberry from different production areas (Ningxia, Xinjiang, Qinghai and Inner Mongolia) were analyzed in the physio-chemical index, active substance and volatile flavor compounds. The results showed that there were certain differences in the physio-chemical index of wolfberry between different regions and the content of active substances in wolfberry of Ningxia and Qinghai production area showed a high level. The detection of headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy combined with partial least squares discrimination analysis showed that 16 kinds of substances had significant content differences between producing areas. 1-propanol was a unique substance of the Inner Mongolia area which could be used to identify Inner Mongolia wolfberry. Furfural, 1-octene-3-ol, cis-3-hexen-1-ol, 2-methyl butanal and methyl butyrate selected by variable importance in projection value could be used as marker to distinguish the origin of wolfberry.
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Quorum sensing quenching effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus MS1 on Vibrio parahaemolyticus
SHANGGUAN Wendan, CHEN Song, HAN Xiangpeng, LIU Dan, LI Yao, ZHONG Qingping
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 64-70.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027600
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (5549KB) ( 3 )  
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with inhibitory effects on quorum sensing and biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were screened from fermented foods. Seven LAB strains with quenching activity against QS of V. parahaemolyticus were screened using Vibrio harveyi BB170 bioluminescence method. Among them, Lactobacillus rhamnosus MS1 showed strong anti-QS activity and the inhibition rate was 69.54%. At sub-bacteriostatic concentration, MS1-QSI inhibited the AI-2 activity, flagellar movement (swarming and swimming), biofilm formation and extracellular polysaccharide synthesis of V. parahaemolyticus in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition of MS1-QSI on biofilms was also confirmed by observations using optical microscope, field emission scanning electron microscope and laser confocal microscope. This study indicated that L. rhamnosus MS1 possessed promising quorum sensing quenching activity against V. parahaemolyticus, which may provide theoretical foundation for the development of novel LAB-based biological agent.
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Recombinant expression and characterization of histone lysine specific demethylase in Escherichia coli
LI Jinrong, XIN Yu, SHI Guiyang, GU Zhenghua, ZHANG Liang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 71-76.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027435
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1901KB) ( 4 )  
To investigate the enzymatic properties of histone lysine demethylase, the demethylases originated from zebrafish(Lsd1) and coffee(Jmjc) were cloned and heterologously expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3), respectively. The fermentation process was further optimized, and the enzymatic properties were studied after the purification of the expressed products via affinity chromatography on a nickel column. Based on the results, two E. coli recombinants (BL21 (DE3)/pET28a-lsD1 and BL21(DE3)/pET28a-jmjC) were constructed successfully. The soluble target protein could be obtained under 25 ℃ and 0.1 mmol/L isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG) induction. These two enzymes could be further purified by eluting with 100 mmol/L and 200 mmol/L imidazole. In terms of reaction activity, the corresponding optimum temperature and pH for Lsd1 were 35 ℃ and 7.0, while for Jmjc were 20 ℃ and 8.0. Comparing Lsd1 with Jmjc in stability, Lsd1 showed better thermostability, but Jmjc was found to have better tolerance to the change of pH. The enzyme activity of these two demethylases was promoted by the addition of Mn2+. In contrast, Co2+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Zn2+ and Ni2+ would limit the activity on both enzymes to varies extent. According to the kinetic study, the catalytic coefficient of these two enzymes was relatively low since the overall reaction time was long. The kcat/Km of Lsd1 and Jmjc were 8.23×10-6 L/(mol·s) and 1.06×10-5 L/(mol·s), respectively. The current results could provide meaningful information for the application of histone lysine demethylase in the field of the degradation of non-histone N—CH3 compound as well as the research about the development of inhibitors in vitro.
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Screening and identification of selenium-tolerant Lysinibacillus fusiformis D1 and scavenging activity on oxygen free radicals
DUAN Yuhua, YU Yonghe, YANG Rui, WANG Yidan, ZHOU Xin, WANG Zhangqian
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 77-82.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027163
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3686KB) ( 3 )  
Selenium-contaminated soil may be harmful to the ecological environment and human health. However, there are few studies on the use of microorganisms as a remedy in China. A high selenium tolerance strain was isolated from the soil of the Jianghan Plain. The strain was identified, its growth kinetics were analyzed, its nano-selenium was characterized, and its free radical scavenging activity was evaluated. The results showed that strain D1 was Lysinibacillus fusiformis and the highest tolerance to sodium selenite was 35 mg/mL. The particle size of nano-selenium was (306.20 ±1.64) nm. The secondary metabolites of Lysinibacillus fusiformis D1 had certain DPPH radical scavenging ability (66.38±0.67)% and strong ABTS radical scavenging ability (99.94±0.08)%. The nano-selenium produced by this strain had certain hydroxyl radical scavenging ability, which was (59.81±5.09)%. This strain can provide a reference for the bioremediation of selenium-rich soils, and the scavenging free radicals in its secondary metabolites need to be further studied.
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Separation and purification of maltosyl-β-CD by high-speed counter-current chromatography
WU Xue, QIU Chao, WANG Jinpeng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 83-88.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027223
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1391KB) ( 3 )  
High speed countercurrent chromatography (HSCCC) is a rapid and efficient separation method based on liquid-liquid separation principle. In this article, HSCCC was investigated to separate maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin, maltose and β-cyclodextrin simultaneously. The partitioning of sugars was investigated in ethanol-salt aqueous two-phase systems addressing the effects of phase-forming salt type (NaH2PO4/K2HPO4/(NH4)2SO4) and concentration, organic reagents type and concentration. By measuring the partition coefficients of sugars in the upper and lower phases, it was found that the partition coefficients were the most different among maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin, β-cyclodextrin and maltose when NaH2PO4 and acetone were used, and the phase separation time was less than 30 s. V(300 g/L NaH2PO4)∶V(ethanol)∶V(acetone)=6∶2∶1.5 was optimized finally for the solvent system, and the above phase was the stationary phase and another was the mobile phase. The operating conditions were determined to be 800 r/min and with 2 mL/min of the flow rate. The effluent was collected every 15 minutes. In 30-35 min, the target compound was collected and analyzed by HPLC, the result was shown that the purity was up to 93.2% which increased by 61%, and the retention rate of the stationary phase was 60%. Therefore, HSCCC is a fast and efficient separation method, and it has broad application scenarios in the separation and purification of maltosyl-β-cyclodextrin.
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Effects of psyllium husk powder on emulsifying stability and microstructure of oil-in-water emulsions from sodium caseinate
WANG Tingting, FU Qingquan, ZHANG Jianwen, HU Xianli, WANG Rongrong, SONG Shangxin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 89-94.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029030
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (8467KB) ( 3 )  
This study focused on the effects of psyllium husk powder addition on the apparent stability, emulsifying stability, rheology properties, microstructure particle size and distribution, rheological properties, and microstructure of fresh emulsions. Four concentration of PHP (0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, 0.9%, w/w) was dissolved in deionized water, sodium caseinate emulsified soybean oil, (respectively 20% soybean oil, 2% sodium caseinate, w/w) were added PHP solutions using high speed shear homogenization. The emulsification stability and emulsion stability index (TSI), particle size, rheological properties, microscopic observation and surface protein content were determined respectively. The results showed that the emulsion stability index and the particle size of the oil drops gradually decreased with the increasing of PHP concentrations. However, the viscosity and the surface protein content of emulsion gradually increased with the increase of PHP concentrations. Compared with the control group, there was a significant difference in the surface protein content of PHP emulsion (P<0.05). Furthermore, microstructure results showed that, when the concentration of PHP increased, more oil droplets could be absorbed by sodium caseinate and the aggregation of oil droplets could be inhibited. The cryo-SEM micrographs showed that samples with a high concentration of PHP could form a three-dimensional mesh structure, and the fiber structure of PHP could tightly wrap the oil droplets. Above results indicated that PHP could be a good emulsifier form a stable emulsion and has great potential in emulsion meat products. A stable emulsion system was composed with a concentration of 0.7% PHP, 2% sodium caseinate and 30% soybean oil.
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Changes of soybean isoflavones and flavor substances in soybean whey beverage during fermentation
OU Hongyan, ZHAO Liangzhong, LI Ming, ZHOU Xiaojie
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 95-101.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027168
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (1576KB) ( 3 )  
To understand the changes of bioactive substances and flavor substances during the fermentation of soybean whey beverage, soybean whey fermented with Kluyveromyces marxianus, Leuconostoc marxianus and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (1∶1∶1) were studied, the changes of soybean isoflavones, organic acids and flavor substances in soybean whey beverage during fermentation were detected regularly. The results showed that with the extension of fermentation time, the contents of daidzin, genistin and glycitin decreased linearly, while the contents of genistein, daidzein and glycitein increased linearly. On the whole, the decrease rate of isoflavone glycosides was 60.10%, and the increase rate of isoflavone aglycones was 67.61%. The results showed that the content of daidzin, genistin and glycitin was significantly positively correlated (P<0.01), and negatively correlated with daidzein, genistein and glycitein (P<0.01), The flavonoid aglycone was mainly hydrolyzed by the flavonoid glycosides. After 22 h, the contents of pyruvate, lactic acid, citric acid, fumaric acid and succinic acid were 0.000, (0.63±0.008), (2.672±0.002), (0.12±0.02) and (0.231±0.01) g/L, respectively. A certain concentration of organic acids could promote the hydrolysis of isoflavone glycosides to isoflavone aglycones. During the process of soybean whey beverage, eight alcohols, seven alkenes, six esters, five aldehydes, two ketones, two acids, two aromatic compounds, one alkane and four other components were identified. The substances with unpleasant flavor, n-hexanol, 1-octene-3-alcohol, n-hexanal and nonanal were metabolized to low or undetectable levels by lactic acid bacteria, and new esters and aldehydes of floral and fruity flavors were formed. In this study, the soybean whey beverage rich in genistein and good flavor was obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization of soybean whey.
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Properties and application of sucrose synthase from Nitrosospira multiformis
FENG Xin, ZHAO Liting, GU Zhenghua, LI Youran, SHI Guiyang, DING Zhongyang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 102-108.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027355
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2070KB) ( 3 )  
UDP-glucose is an important sugar donor for glycosylation of “Leloir” glycosyltransferases (GTs). Sucrose synthase (SuSy) can utilize both sucrose and UDP as substrates to reversibly generate UDP-glucose in a one-step reaction. The SuSy gene from Nitrosospira multiformis(NmSuSy) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified NmSuSy was analyzed for its enzymatic properties and functions. The efficient synthesis of UDP-glucose was achieved by overcoming the thermodynamic and kinetic constraints of the reversible reaction. Results showed that the molecular weight of SuSy was 89 kDa, and the optimum reaction pH for SuSy was 6.5 and it was stable ranging from pH 6.0 to 7.5; while the optimal temperature was 55 ℃ and it behaved better with temperature lower than 40 ℃. Under the optimized conditions (pH 6, temperature 40 ℃, 1 mol/L sucrose, 100 mmol/L UDP), reactions with NmSuSy (100 mg/L) could produce 35.8 mmol/L (20.2 g/L) of UDP-glucose in 1 h. When the reversible reaction reached equilibrium within 6 hours, 41.5 mmol/L (23.5 g/L) of UDP-glucose could be produced. This study lays a theoretical foundation for the efficient synthesis of UDP-glucose, and provides a more economical donor substrate material for the research of glycobiology.
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Metabolic engineering of Candida tropicalis to improve D-lactic acid production
HUANG Yukun, ZHANG Lihua, ZHANG Haibing, CAO Yu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 109-115.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027465
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (7039KB) ( 2 )  
Lactic acid is a kind of hydroxy acid, which can be divided into D-lactic acid and L-lactic acid due to its combination site of hydroxyl. It is widely applied in food, medicine and biomaterial industries. As the growing demand for biodegradable plastics, researches on producing lactic acid by biotechnology have drawn wide attentions. This study investigated the impact of pdc gene knock out and gene overexpression of LDH and 2-HAD on cell growth and D-lactic acid production, based on the diploid Candida tropicalis. pdc1 gene knock out strain AK01, pdc2 gene knock out strain AK02, pdc1/pdc2 gene knock out strain AK03, 2-had gene overexpression strain AK04, AK06 and d-ldh gene overexpression strain AK05, AK07 were obtained by homologous recombination. The results showed that there was growth inhibition and notably ethanol reduction in pdc1 gene knock out strain AK01 and AK03. The growth inhibition was also found in d-ldh gene overexpression strain AK05 and AK07. pdc1 gene knock out and d-ldh gene overexpression strain AK05 produced 6.1 g/L D- lactic acid, which was 28 times more than that produced by the parental strain.
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Effect of tdh gene of Bacillus subtilis on Maotai-flavor
LI Wen, XIE He
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 116-123.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.026883
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (2561KB) ( 2 )  
This study aimed to explore the impact of Bacillus subtilis E20 threonine dehydrogenase gene on the production of Maotai-flavor by soybean fermentation, the tdh gene was knocked out through homologous recombination, and the mutant strain E20-Δtdh was successfully constructed. The mutant strains and wild strains were inoculated into the soybeans that after high temperature and high-pressure sterilization, and the simulated Maotai flavored fermentation was performed. The sensory evaluation showed that the Maotai-flavor of the fermented product of the mutant strain was not prominent, and a burnt smell was produced. The results of GC-MS analysis showed that the relative content of pyrazine in the fermentation product of the mutant strain was 16.089% lower than that of the wild strain, and 2,5-dimethylpyrazine was not detected. The evaluation results of characteristic aroma components showed that the pyrazines that had a direct impact on the flavor of Maotai were 2,5-dimethylpyrazine rather than tetramethylpyrazine. The above results confirmed that the tdh gene of Bacillus subtilis E20 was closely related to the production of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, and could significantly affect the formation of Maotai-flavor.
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Screening of an extracellular polysaccharides producing Bacillus thuringiensis strain and its fermentation optimization
YANG Jing, GAO Zexin, ZHU Li, ZHAN Xiaobei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 124-131.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027440
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (4593KB) ( 4 )  
Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) has potential application value due to its short production cycle and other advantages. In this paper, a strain with high yield of EPS was screened from natto and identified as Bacillus thuringiensi. To improve its EPS production, the fermentation medium and fermentation conditions of strain were optimized by single-factor experiments. The Plackett-Burman (PB) design was used to evaluate the importance of nine factors, and three important factors were selected. Box-Benhnken experimental design was used to get the final optimal culture: 22.6 g/L glucose, 9.3 g/L soybean meal, 2.0 g/L corn syrup, 0.5 g/L K2HPO4, 1.5 g/L NaH2PO4, 1.5 g/L MgSO4, 0.05 g/L MnCl2, pH 7.5, loading volume 70 mL, 34 ℃, inoculum size of 6%. Compared with the initial fermentation process, the EPS production increased by 133.33%. Using 7 L fermenter to amplify and verify, the yield of EPS increased to 6.56 g/L. Compared with the shake flask level, the EPS production increased by 123.1% and the EPS had nattokinase activity. It is expected to become a potential source of synthetic drugs.
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Investigation on reutilization of condensate treated by O3 oxidation in ethanol fermentation
SHENG Xuanxuan, ZHANG Jianhua, HUANG He, WANG Xiuye
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 132-136.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027294
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1672KB) ( 3 )  
Directly reusing condensate in the ethanol fermentation would inhibit its process. In this study, O3 oxidation method was used to treat the condensate, and the oxidized condensate was reused for ethanol fermentation. The results showed that the contents of phenylethanol and furfural in the oxidized condensate were decreased by 99.5% and 100%, respectively, while the contents of acetic acid and propionic acid were increased by 16.3% and 22.4%, respectively. When the oxidized condensate was used for ethanol fermentation, the ethanol yield was increased by 8.3% and the proportion of active yeast cells was increased to 95%. The results showed that the macromolecular organics in the condensate were degraded to small molecular carboxylic acids after O3 oxidation, which could increase the proportion of active yeast cells, ethanol fermentation efficiency and the yield of ethanol. As a result, the O3 oxidation method could realize the total reutilization of condensate in the ethanol fermentation.
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Preparation of pullulan/carboxymethyl chitosan composite membrane and its fresh-keeping effect on Macrobrachium rosenbergii
CHEN Luzhu, LI Nian, PEI Nuo, SHI Wenzheng, WANG Zhihe
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 137-143.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027345
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (3156KB) ( 2 )  
In order to develop a safety and quality preservation effect of the composite membrane, pullulan polysaccharides and carboxymethyl chitosan were used as raw material, to explore the different pullulan polysaccharides content of pullulan polysaccharides/CMC preservation the influence of the physical and chemical properties of the composite film. The adopt the optimal performance of composite film preservation was studied for the Roche spermatogenesis. The results showed that the addition of pullulan polysaccharide could change the tensile strength and elongation at break, reduce the water vapor transmittance and increase the light transmittance of the CMC membrane. According to the infrared spectra of the composite membrane, the interaction between pullulan polysaccharide and CMC occurred in the composite membrane. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that the surface of the composite membrane was smooth and without pores, which showing a good biocompatibility. Considering comprehensively, pullulan polysaccharide and CMC 1∶1 composite membrane had the best performance. By comparing the sensory score, total volatile base nitrogen, pH value, thiobarbituric acid value and the total number of colonies in the storage process of Macrobrachium rosenbergii, it was found that the composite membrane could prolong the shelf life of Macrobrachium rosenbergii for 4 d. The results showed that pullulan polysaccharide and CMC could prepare the composite membrane with excellent performance, which could control the deterioration of Macrobrachium rosenbergii and had good effect on prolonging its shelf life.
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Effects of three dry-curing methods on physicochemical properties of cured pork
HU Dianlun, HE Juping, CHEN Yijun, CHEN Yanping, XIE Longhuang, YANG Wangen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 144-149.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.029067
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The dry-curing process in traditional meat processing has such disadvantages as slow salt penetration and the resulting easy spoilage of cured meat. To develop the fast dry-curing technique for meat production, fresh pork was used as material, the effects of sodium chloride dosage (from 2% to 10%) and pulsed vacuum frequency (from 0 to 7 times every 4 hours) under atmospheric pressure, vacuum and pulsed vacuum on the sodium chloride and sodium nitrite penetrations, water content, shear force, pH and color difference of cured pork were studied, respectively. The results showed that when the dry-curing was conducted under atmospheric pressure or vacuum, the sodium chloride penetration and the shearing force increased as the sodium chloride dosage increased, but the water content, pH, and L* value decreased. In the range of the investigated sodium chloride dosages, the sodium nitrite penetrations, shear forces, pH, L* values, and a* values of the meat cured under vacuum were lower than those of the meat cured under atmospheric pressure. Moreover, as the pulsed vacuum frequency increased, the sodium chloride penetration only increased by 0.02%, however, the sodium nitrite penetration increased by 100%. The moisture content of cured meat decreased by 0.8%. The L* and a* values showed an increasing trend, and the b* value showed a first downward and then upward trend. These results suggested that the dry curing under vacuum could improve the efficiency of sodium chloride penetration, the tenderness and reduce the pH of the cured meat, and the dry-curing under pulse vacuum could improve the efficiency of sodium nitrite penetration and the brightness of the cured meat. This discovery has certain technical reference value for the development of fast dry-curing technology for meat processing.
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Effect of extraction method on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Gymnadenia conopsea R. Br.
LI Fengwei, PENG Mengli, ZHU Yuanping, GAO Wenbin, YU Xiaohong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 150-155.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027159
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1538KB) ( 4 )  
The effect of five extraction methods (hot water, enzyme assisted, ultrasonic assisted, ultrasonic-enzyme assisted and microwave assisted) on the yields, properties and antioxidant activities of Gymnadenia conopsea polysaccharides (GCP) were evaluated. The results showed that the yield of GCP was in the following order: enzyme assisted method (25.6%)>ultrasonic-enzyme assisted method (23.6%)>ultrasonic assisted method (19.25%)>hot water method (12.63%)>microwave assisted method (7.19%). The monosaccharides, composed mainly of mannose and glucose in five GCP samples was the same. GCP extracted by all five methods had similar typical Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These GCP possessed different antioxidant activities in terms of measurement of hydroxyl radicals scavenging capacity. The ones extracted by enzyme assisted and ultrasonic assisted extraction showed better antioxidant activity than others. These data showed that enzyme and ultrasonic assisted methods could be used for extracting functional polysaccharides from Gymnadenia conopsea R. Br..
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Effect of soaking parameters in water absorption stage of electric cooker on odor improvement of aged japonica rice
WANG Yihuan, XIA Shuqin, ZHANG Xiaoming, WANG Xingwei, LI Jing, GONG Yanling
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 156-163.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.026646
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (2418KB) ( 2 )  
The cooking method of an electric cooker based on thermal processing can endow japonica rice with rich flavor, however, there is no corresponding cooking mode to improve the flavor quality of aged japonica rice. The odor characteristics of aged japonica rice were analyzed by sensory evaluation, electronic nose, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Combined with the changes of lipase activity and free fatty acids content, the reasons for the differences of volatile flavor substances in aged rice caused by the adjustment of parameters in the water absorption stage were explored. The results showed that soaking at 50 ℃ for 10 min could improve the flavor profile of the aged rice, which was similar to the overall flavor of the fresh rice. Moreover, compared with soaking at room temperature, the lipase activity in aged rice decreased by 86%, and the accumulation of total free fatty acids and free unsaturated fatty acids reduced by 21.6% and 28.2%, respectively. The activity of endogenous lipase in rice grains was effectively controlled and the hydrolysis of lipids was delayed by soaking at medium temperature for a short time. In addition, the content of off-flavor compounds such as hexanal and nonanal from fat oxidation decreased significantly. This study established a theoretical foundation for the design of the flavor improvement curve of rice cooked in an electric cooker.
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Dynamic changes of volatile organic compounds in giant salamander (Andrias davidiauns) liver during ginger/cooking wine deodorization
ZHAO Ping, CHEN Xiaohua, LIU Junxia, PEI Jinjin, JIN Wengang, WANG Jinghua, CHEN Dejing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 164-172.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027769
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (13754KB) ( 22 )  
To clarify the changes of volatile organic compounds in giant salamander liver before and after deodorization, the volatile components in giant salamander liver treated with ginger /cooking wine for different time (0, 5, 10, 15, 20 min) were investigated by sensory odor value combined with gas chromatography ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS). The results showed that compared with the non-deodorization control, the odor value of the giant salamander liver of Andrias davidianus decreased significantly after 5 min of ginger/cooking wine treatment (P<0.05), and there was no significant difference after 10 min of continuous treatment. A total of 32 volatile organic compounds were identified in giant salamander liver at different deodorization time, including 10 alcohols, 8 aldehydes, 5 esters, 5 ketones, 3 olefins and 1 ether. After different deodorization time, the relative contents of alcohols, ketones and aldehydes decreased, while the relative contents of esters, alkenes and ethers increased. Eight characteristic markers (VIP > 1) were screened by orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), including 3 alcohols (1-heptanol, 2-furanmethanol and 2-methylbutan-1-ol), 3 aldehydes[(E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-heptanal and n-hexanal dimer] and 2 olefins (limonene monomer and dimer). During the deodorization process, (E)-2-octenal, (E)-2-heptaneal, n-hexanal dimer, 2-furanmethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol and limonene monomers showed a downward trend, while heptanol and limonene dimer showed an increasing trend, which may be caused by the removal and masking of ginger/cooking wine on the liver odor components of giant salamander. Principal component and cluster analysis showed that the liver of Andrias davidianus at different deodorization time could be distinguished according to the relative content of characteristic markers. This study provides a reference for the development and utilization of liver deodorization of Andrias davidianus.
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Effect of high hydrostatic pressure treatment on the quality of low alcohol sea-buckthorn mead
CUI Yuanyuan, ZHANG Zhen, LI Yi, LI Jixin, CHEN Yonghao, ZHANG Yu, BA Lingzhen, JIANG Yumei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 173-178.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028679
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (2411KB) ( 2 )  
Sea-buckthorn puree and cole honey were used as raw materials to prepare low-alcohol sea-buckthorn mead with the addition of sulfur or high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) antibacterial treatment. Compared with the control (fermented sample), the antibacterial effects were discussed based on the physicochemical, color and aroma quality of sea buckthorn mead. The pH value, soluble solids and total acid content of the HHP treated samples were not significantly different, while the pH value and total acid content of the SO2 treated samples changed significantly (P<0.05). Although the L*, a* and tone value of the HHP treated sample did not change significantly, the color value and b* increased significantly (P<0.05). At the same time, the L*, a*, b* and hue value of the SO2 treated samples had no significant difference (P>0.05), and the chromaticity value increased significantly (P<0.05). By analyzing the content of various aroma compounds, compared with the control group, the wine samples treated with sulphurization decreased by 25.14%, while the wine samples treated with high hydrostatic pressure increased by 28.47%. Thus, it can be seen that the HHP treatment had low effect on the sugar and acid content of the samples, and the color and aroma quality was better than that of the SO2 treated samples. Therefore, the HHP technology can improve the aroma and color quality of the low-alcohol sea-buckthorn mead, which has significant advantages to be used during the mead processing.
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Effects of curing process on myofibrillar protein characteristics and water distribution of beef
GAO Ziwu, WU Danxuan, WANG Hengpeng, WU Peng, TU Mingliang, XU Zhicheng, MENG Xiangren
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 179-186.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027285
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (5249KB) ( 2 )  
In order to explore water distribution and myofibrillar protein characteristics of beef under different curing process, the beef was cured by static curing, vacuum tumbling curing and ultrasonic-assisted curing, respectively and the surface hydrophobicity, total sulfhydryl, carbonyl, secondary structure and water distribution of myofibrillar protein were determined, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used to analyze it. The results showed that the surface hydrophobicity of ultrasound-assisted curing was lower than that of the other two curing process. The contents of the total sulfhydryl group was the lowest and the content of carbonyl group was the highest in vacuum tumbling curing, and the degree of protein oxidation was the highest. Compared with the control group, the content of α-helix structure in myofibrillar protein of vacuum tumbling curing beef decreased significantly (P<0.05), while the content of β-sheet structure increased significantly (P<0.05). After ultrasonic-assisted curing for 40 min, the content of myofibrillar β-sheet structure was only 15.47%, and the macroscopic tenderness was better. SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis patterns showed that the myofibrillar protein bands of vacuum tumbling and ultrasound-assisted cured beef were clear at 10-26 kDa, while the band at 43-95 kDa was blurred and slightly diffused at myosin heavy chain which indicating protein degradation. The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) showed that the area of relaxation peak of binding water and non-flowing water of beef cured by vacuum tumbling and ultrasonic wave were significantly higher than those of uncured and static cured beef (P<0.05). With the extension of ultrasonic curing time, the area of free water relaxation peak of beef was significantly decreased (P<0.05), and water retention was further enhanced. Above indexes showed that in the curing process, ultrasonic and vacuum tumbling could promote the oxidative degradation of beef myofibrillar protein, and ultrasonic-assisted curing was more beneficial to improve the water retention and tenderness of beef.
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Influence of inlet and outlet position of dry ice spray on strawberry quick-freezing process
NING Jinghong, ZHAO Yanfeng, SUN Zhaoyang, LIU Mao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 187-192.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028854
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (6951KB) ( 2 )  
This paper focuses on the characteristics of dry ice spraying over strawberries to make them cool down and freeze quickly. Several models of strawberry quick-freezing room with different positions of dry ice inlet and outlet were presented. The effects of strawberry quick-freezing room models with different dry ice entry and exit positions on center temperature and surface temperature of strawberry, velocity field were analyzed. The results showed that, when the inlet radius was 25 mm, the outlet radius was 50 mm, the shelf thickness was 5 mm, the surface temperature of all strawberries dropped to -35 ℃ or below and the center temperature of strawberries dropped to -18 ℃ or below. The inlet was on the same side and arranged symmetrically, and the difference between the highest and lowest center temperatures of all strawberries was only 6.2 ℃ (model a). Besides, the difference between the highest and lowest center temperature of all strawberries was 9.9 ℃ (model c). Furthermore, the best coupling of flow velocity and heat transfer of the model c could be achieved by uniform surface temperature, minimum quick-freezing time and regular distribution of dry ice streamline. It could freeze strawberries efficiently and meet the demand of strawberry quick-frozen production. The results were verified and the errors between experiment and simulation were 2.10% and 5.79% (model c) 3.93% and 5.71% (model f) respectively when the surface temperature and the center temperature reached the standard of quick-frozen strawberry. The physical and chemical properties of strawberries before and after quick-freezing with dry ice were better than the standard of quick-frozen strawberries. The results obtained lay a foundation for the further development of energy-saving and environment-friendly dry strawberry devices.
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Isolation and identification of an exopolysaccharide-producing microalgae strain and its antioxidant activity
WU Siwei, LI Siyu, SUN Han, LIU Hongquan, HE Xiumiao, HUANG Ying, WU Jiahui, HUANG Liumei, LONG Han
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 193-200.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027350
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (7216KB) ( 2 )  
A microalgae strain with high exopolysaccharides production isolated from mangrove in Fangchenggang city, Beibu Gulf region, Guangxi province was named as GF02. GF02 was identified as Chlorella sorokiniana according to morphology and molecular biology analysis. Preliminary characterization results showed that the main component of the extracellular polysaccharide was α-pyranose. Response surface method was used to optimize the culture conditions of GF02 for the extracellular polysaccharide production. The results showed that the optimal culture condition for GF02 to produce exopolysaccharides were NaNO3 2.1 g/L,Na2CO3 0.02 g/L,MgSO4 0.086 g/L and K2HPO4 0.06 g/L. Under these conditions, the accumulation of extracellular polysaccharides was 216.268 mg/L, which was 1.60 times of that before optimization. The results of antioxidant activity analysis showed that the eliminating rate of GF02 exopolysaccharides on DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were up to 36.53% and 67.33%, respectively. This study would provide experimental basis for the preparation and further utilization of Chlorella polysaccharides.
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Research on temperature-varying drying process of green prickleyashes based on temperature-moisture-color coupling technology
WU Yifan, YANG Mingjin, LI Rui, CHEN Ziwen, ZHANG Kai, LI Shoutai, WANG Jiaoling, YANG Ling
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 201-208.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027339
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (11017KB) ( 2 )  
In order to reduce the browning of green prickleyashes products and drying time, and improve drying quality, this study proposed a temperature-varying drying process based on temperature-moisture-color (TMC) coupling technology. Through single factor test of temperature, initial moisture content, and wind speed, the rapid browning temperature curve of green prickleyashes at different moisture content levels was obtained. The initial moisture content, temperature and laying capacity were defined as control factors, and total color change(TCC) was defined as the evaluation index. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) was used to determine the optimal process parameters. Finally, the TMC temperature-varying drying technology was formulated according to the rapid browning temperature curve. The results showed that the main factors that cause the color change of green prickleyashes were temperature and the coupling factor of temperature and moisture content. Under the conditions of initial moisture content of 58.67% and laying capacity of 30 g, the optimal temperature step of the TMC temperature-varying drying technology was 7.5 ℃, resulting in a drying time of 15 h, TCC 16.79, an aperture ratio of 98.03%. Compared with optimized temperature-constant drying, drying time decreased by 13.49%, TCC decreased by 11.3%, and the aperture ratio increased by 19.59%. Therefore the drying quality of TMC temperature-varying drying technology was significantly improved, and the technology can guide to produce green prickleyashes drying.
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Effect of pH-ultrasonic treatment on gelation of soy protein isolate
CAI Shaokai, CUI Yaru, QIU Tingting, SHI Yan, SHI Yuhan, WANG Zhaojun, ZENG Maomao, CHEN Jie
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 209-218.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028196
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (5063KB) ( 2 )  
In this study, soybean protein isolation (SPI) was modified by the pH-ultrasound method, and the modification effect of different treatment conditions on gelation of SPI was analyzed, which laid a foundation for the application of modified soybean protein in the field of plant meat. The effects of the treatment method on the properties and composition of SPI solution were analyzed by particle size, molecular weight distribution, rheological analysis and sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Meanwhile, the effect of the treatment method on the gelation of SPI was analyzed by texture, and the structure of SPI was analyzed by hydrophobicity and tryptophan endogenous fluorescence assay. The results showed that the SPI solution can form soluble agglomerates with a lower gelation temperature (60.96 ℃) or a higher gel strength (4 862.76 Pa) by pH-ultrasonic complex method, that is, pH 2 or 3, ultrasonic power 240 W, ultrasonic frequency 40 kHz, and treatment temperature 20 ℃ or 40 ℃.To a certain extent, it was beneficial to gel formation and had irreversible stability. Through the analysis of the gelation of SPI, the composite treatment method was beneficial to the synergistic enhancement of the gelation of SPI, and the effect was more significant than that of single pH or single ultrasonic treatment. Under the ultrasonic treatment conditions of pH 3 and processing temperature 20 ℃, the soybean protein concentration of 0.10 g/mL can significantly achieve the improvement of all the relevant texture property data described in this paper.
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Control of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil on postharvest blue mold of Pyrus bretchneideri cv. Pingguoli and its effect on sensory and texture quality
WANG Cong, SHEN Hao, PU Guoshun, REN Li, LI Zhenzi, WANG Junjie
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 219-225.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.026922
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (1574KB) ( 2 )  
To explore the application effects of Zanthoxylum bungeanum essential oil (ZBEO) on postharvest disease control in Pyrus bretchneideri cv. Pingguoli fruit, the inhibitory effect of the ZBEO on the main pathogens of Penicillium expansum and Alternaria alternata of postharvest decay in the fruit were investigated in this study. Subsequently, the fumigation concentration and time of ZBEO used to control blue mold in fruit after harvest was optimized through a single factor experiment combined with response surface design. In addition, the sensory and texture quality of pear fruits treated with essential oil during storage were analyzed. The results showed that the fumigation treatment of ZBEO had a better inhibition effect on P. expansum than A. alternata in vitro. Furthermore, the fumigation of ZBEO at a concentration of 14.2 μL/L for 5.6 h was the best optimization conditions for control disease development in the pear fruits inoculated with P. expansum. Meanwhile, the results of the sensory analysis showed that the influence of ZBEO on fruit aroma was reflected in the initial stage of storage, but it didn’t have an adverse effect on fruit taste, texture and color. Moreover, the texture profile analysis also showed that ZBEO could delay the decline of hardness and brittleness and inhibit the increasement of gumminess and adhesiveness. These results indicated that the fumigation of ZBEO has the potential application value on effectively controlling postharvest blue mold and maintaining texture quality in Pyrus bretchneideri cv. Pingguoli.
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Preparation and properties of sodium alginate-guar gum vegetarian casings
CHEN Xiling, ZHAO Wei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 226-234.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027335
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2514KB) ( 2 )  
Due to the defects of collagen casing, such as complicated manufacturing process, high cost, easy to crack after cooking, sensitization and unsuitable for specific religious population, sodium alginate and guar gum vegetarian casings were prepared using sodium alginate and guar gum as film-forming substrate with glycerol as a plasticizer and calcium chloride as the crosslinking agent. The effects of the proportion of sodium alginate and guar gum, glycerin content, calcium chloride concentration, cross-linking time on properties were studied. The mechanical properties, water resistance and barrier properties and the optimum technological conditions were determined through orthogonal tests. The results showed that the optimal preparation conditions of the casing were sodium alginate-guar gum ratio of 8∶2, glycerol content of 20%, the calcium chloride content of 100 g/L, and cross-linking time for 5 min. Elongation at break of vegetarian casings prepared under these conditions improved significantly, and oxygen and wet resistance were better than normal. Sodium alginate guar gum vegetarian casing can be a novel type of packaging material for the meat casing market which providing a potential theoretical guidance of industrialization with broad application prospects.
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Analysis of volatile components in various caviars based on gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy
CHEN Yao, ZHU Kaiyue, ZHANG Yuying, WANG Shuchen, JIN Wengang, JIANG Pengfei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 235-241.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028647
Abstract ( 5 )   HTML    PDF (6874KB) ( 2 )  
To ascertain the difference of volatile flavor compounds in different varieties of caviar, this study used gas chromatography-ion mobility spectroscopy (GC-IMS) to analyze the differences of volatile odor substances of six different kinds of caviar. The results showed that 28 kinds of volatile compounds were identified by GC-IMS, including 16 aldehydes, five ketones, three alcohols, three olefins and one ester. Among them, the characteristic components of Siberian sturgeon caviar were octane aldehyde, heptanal, etc.; the characteristic components of Amer sturgeon caviar were α-pinene, β-pinene etc.; the characteristic components of hybrid sturgeon caviar were 2-butanone etc.; the characteristic components of Russian sturgeon caviar were E-2-pentenal etc.; the characteristic components of Kaluga caviar were 3-methybutyraldehyde, 2-methybutyraldehyde etc.; the characteristic components of European sturgeon caviar were butyraldehyde etc. The results of principal component analysis showed that there were significant differences in the GC-IMS spectra for the volatile components of six different caviars. The cumulative contribution of the first three principal components reached 81.9%, which indicated that the GC-IMS technology could distinguish these six different caviars. This study established the volatile component fingerprint of six different caviars by visualization of GC-IMS technology, which can provide a basis for species identification and quality assessment of caviars in future.
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Research on relationship between vision features and internal quality parameters of pomelo and a rough detection method for pomelo
XU Sai, LU Huazhong, WANG Xu, QIU Guangjun, LIANG Xin, WANG Chen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 242-248.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027138
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (4140KB) ( 2 )  
To find the relationship between external vision features and internal quality detection of pomelo, and provide a rough detection method, twenty vision features (vertical and transverse diameters, ratio of vertical and transverse diameters, area, first order of R, G and B gray values, second-order of R, G and B gray values, third order of R, G and B gray values, H, V, and S gray values, correlation, contrast, energy, and roughness, which were represented by F1 to F20) and 3 major internal quality parameters (granulation degree, total soluble solid (TSS) and water content) were detected and analyzed. The results showed that the external feature could be well described by machine vision technology. The linear correlation between whole vision features and internal quality parameters was insignificant. However, the nonlinear correlation between vision features and internal quality parameters was significant. Thereinto, the nonlinear correlation between vision features and granulation degree were insignificant except F5, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, F13, F14, F15, F17, F19 and F20. The nonlinear correlation between vision features (F5, F8, F9, F10, F11, F12, F13, F14, F15 and F17) and TSS/water content were significant, the nonlinear correlation between other vision features and TSS/water were extremely significant. The granulation degree of pomelo cannot be detected by whole vision features or only significant correlated vision features. However, TSS and water content of pomelo could be roughly well detected by vision features, and the detection effects of whole vision features based were better than only extremely significant features based. Thus, machine vision features not only provide supply information for internal quality detection by other methods, but also can be applied to construct a low-cost and roughly nondestructive detection method for pomelo TSS and water content. This study also provide a reference and new ideas for the improvement of internal quality nondestructive detection of other fruits.
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Simultaneous determination of malachite green and crystal violet residues in aquatic products by multi-plug filtration cleanup method combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
GAO Xiaomin, WANG Jugang, MA Zhiling, YAN Chengming, CHEN Wuhai
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 249-255.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027068
Abstract ( 8 )   HTML    PDF (2220KB) ( 2 )  
In this paper, a multi-plug filtration cleanup (m-PFC) method combined with ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established for the simultaneous determination of malachite green (MG) and its metabolite of leucomalachite green (LMG), crystal violet (CV) and its metabolite residues of leucocrystal violet (LCV) in aquatic products. In this experiment, the pretreatment samples were directly extracted by acetonitrile and centrifuged. After frozen and removed fat, the supernatant was directly injected into the m-PFC column for purification in one step. The purification directly adsorbed impurities without activation, elution and concentration in less than 1 min. The results showed that the linear range of the four substances was in the range of 0.1-6.0 ng/mL, and the correlation coefficient (R2) was greater than 0.99. The detection limit was 0.05 μg/kg, and the quantitative limit was 0.2 μg/kg. The average recovery rate of the method was between 71.1%-84%, with the relative standard deviations (RSD) less than 14% at the spiking levels of 0.5, 1, 2 and 10 μg/kg. Compared with the traditional pretreatment method, the new method was simple, time-saving and high sensitivity. It provides an effective technical support for the determination of malachite green and crystal violet residues in aquatic products. It also provides a new idea for the development of a more rapid and accurate method for the detection of pesticide residues in aquatic products.
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Determination of five kinds of synthetic pigments in chili powder and paprika powder by HPLC
NIU Yiqing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 256-260.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027455
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3188KB) ( 2 )  
To establish a method for the determination of five kinds of synthetic pigments in chili powder and paprika powder by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC), the quantified method by using external standard was developted. Simulated positive samples were prepared and methodology investigation was implemented. n-hexane was used to defeat the samples, and acetonitrile-water was used as the extracting agent to extract the pigments from the samples, and then the JXA-PA column was used for impurity removal and purification. Waters Eclipse XDB-C18 was used, with 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate solution and methanol as the mobile phase, gradient eluting. The analysis was carried out on a diode array detector (wavelengths of 400-800 nm). The results showed that desirable linearity was evaluated among the peak area responses and concentrations in the limit of 0.1-20 μg/mL, and the correlative coefficients were over 0.999. The LOD was 0.5 mg/kg with a recovery of above 80%, the method had a good precision too. The method was reliable and accurate, and very suitable for the determination of synthetic pigment detection in chili powder and paprika powder.
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Microwave-assisted digestion using diluted acid for six nutrient elements determination in brown sugar by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
YANG Wei, LI Rong, FAN Xiaoxu, YANG Chunhua, ZHOU Meili
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 261-264.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027437
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1457KB) ( 2 )  
Microwave-assisted digestion using diluted acid was developed for nutrient elements (Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sr) determination in brown sugar samples by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The effects of different digestion conditions including HNO3 concentration, the volume of H2O2 and digestion time on the recoveries of elements were investigated by single factor experiment, and the optimum digestion conditions were obtained. The results showed that the optimum digestion conditions of microwave-assisted digestion using diluted acid were as follows: concentration of 1 mol/L HNO3, 1.0 mL of H2O2 and digestion for 27 min. The standard curve of each element was exhibited a good linear correlation with a coefficient higher than 0.999 5. The limits of detection (LODs) of 6 elements were 0.001-0.05 mg/kg, and the limits of quantification (LOQs) were 0.004-0.2 mg/kg. Moreover, the relative standard deviation (RSD) was less than 5%. Suitable recoveries (range from 87.5% to 110.2%) were obtained in three evaluations for all analytes. After the comparation with those obtained by the national standard method of China, and no statistical differences were observed (student′s t-test, confidence level of 95%, P>0.05). The proposed method is simple, high sensitivity and accurate, which is suitable for the determination of the Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sr in brown sugar samples.
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The microbial changes in the fermentation process of Liuyang sufu based on Illumina Miseq sequencing
HU Wang, CHEN Mengjuan, YIN Hanliang, LI Xiaoren, JIANG Liwen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 265-270.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.028253
Abstract ( 6 )   HTML    PDF (2682KB) ( 2 )  
Liuyang sufu is a local characteristic fermented sufu product in Hunan province. It has the characteristics of bacteria-dominated natural fermentation, short cycle and easy control. In this paper, the microbial community changes in five steps of tofu, which were fermented for 24 h, fermented for 48 h, soaked in liquor and semi-finished product after tofu mixing were analyzed using Illumina Miseq sequencing combined with conventional methods. It was found that the bacterial count in tofu was more than 107 CFU/g, and after 48 h of fermentation, it increased to more than 109 CFU/g. The total number of OTU in five stages was 113, with significant differences in different stages. The microbial species and diversity reached the highest at the 48 h of fermentation, and Proteobacteria and Firmicutes dominated the samples. The dominant bacterial genera were Pantoea, Enterobacter, Leuconostoc and Pseudomonas. Microbial community changed in different stages of fermentation, which may provide a scientific basis for the development of traditional industries.
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Mechanism and influencing factors of lipid photooxidation in meat and aquatic products
GU Saiqi, BAO Rongbin, FENG Yuan, ZHANG Yueting, ZHOU Zhenyi, LI Junhong, ZHU Shichen, DING Yuting, ZHOU Xuxia
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 271-278.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027457
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1525KB) ( 2 )  
Photooxidation is the major way of lipid oxidation in meat and aquatic products, which may be an important reason for the good aroma quality of dried products obtained by the traditional sun-drying method. This paper mainly reviews the research progress on lipid photooxidation in recent years and elaborates the action mechanism of lipid photooxidation. Then discusses two main kind of factors which will influence lipid photooxidation: The direct factors (photosensitizer, light conditions and lipid composition, etc.) and indirect factors (the materials and methods of packaging, enzymes, water activity, temperature and salt, etc.). In the meanwhile, this article sums up the frequently used detection indexes of lipid photooxidation in order to provide theoretical reference for related enterprises to improve flavor, which will boost the development of the processing industry in meat and aquatic products.
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Research progress in formation mechanism and influencing factors of flavor compounds in fermented vegetables
HUANG Yuli, ZHAO Nan, HUANG Qing, MA Qian, HU Kun, LI Huajia, ZHU Yongqing, ZUO Yong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 279-285.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027424
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1456KB) ( 2 )  
Fermented vegetables (FVs), one of the important traditional fermented food industries in China, originated in Wuding period of Shang Dynasty 3 100 years ago and then passed down to now. FVs are widely consumed due to its special flavor quality which is endowed by microbial metabolism and a series of chemical reactions in an anaerobic environment. Flavor compounds are the key to determine the characteristic flavor quality of FVs, therefore drawn more attentions in the field of FVs. In this paper, types of flavor compounds, formation mechanisms, as well as the abiotic factors in the formation of flavor quality of fermented vegetables are summarized, and their future research is prospected, so as to provide a theoretical basis for improving the product quality and production efficiency of fermented vegetable industry.
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Research progress on tolerance and pathogenic mechanism of foodborne Salmonella spp. in human gastrointestinal tract
DONG Xiaolu, QIN Xiaojie, LIU Yangtai, SUN Tianmei, LIU Hong, WANG Xiang, LI Zhuosi, DONG Qingli
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 286-292.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027513
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (2234KB) ( 2 )  
Foodborne Salmonella spp. will encounter a series of stress conditions that are not conducive to its survival after entering human gastrointestinal tract. Salmonella spp. that adapts to these conditions will cause human disease through the role of its own virulence factors. In this review, the tolerance mechanism of foodborne Salmonella spp. under the stress of gastric acid, bile and intestinal osmotic pressure is summarized, the process of its infection to the host and the mechanism of virulence factors are overviewed, in order to provide a theoretical reference for the research on the pathogenicity of foodborne Salmonella spp. after the combined action of various stress conditions in human gastrointestinal tract.
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Research progress on formation mechanism, identification and controlling method of DFD beef
XIAO Yu, JIAO Yang, LIU Yongfeng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 293-300.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027655
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1275KB) ( 2 )  
The quality of DFD (dark, firm, dry) beef is different from that of normal beef, and its occurrence causes significant financial losses globally to the fresh meat market. This review analyzes the abnormal characteristics of DFD beef compared with normal beef and its mechanism using genomics and proteomics from the cytoskeleton and muscle contraction, mitochondria and metabolism, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, heat shock protein and other aspects. This review summarizes and analyzes methods of identifying DFD beef based on meat color, ultimate pH, glycogen or glycolytic potential. It also proposes post-mortem control measures such as adding organic acid and using modified atmosphere package on beef, to provide references for DFD beef control research and practice.
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Advances on nitrite degradation mechanisms of lactic acid bacteria in pickles
PI Jiating, LIU Dongmin, WANG Jianhui, MU Mingwei, FANG Fang, NING Jingheng, ZHANG Yongsheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 301-307.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027488
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (3801KB) ( 2 )  
Pickles are favored by Chinese consumers, but it is easy to produce hazards such as nitrites in the processing of pickles. Therefore, the production and control of nitrites in pickle processing has become a research hotspot in food and biological fields at home and abroad. This paper reviews and prospects the potential mechanisms, influencing factors and application status of nitrites degradation by lactic acid bacteria during pickle processing. This review will provide theoretical and technical reference for the effective control of nitrites in pickle processing.
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Research progress of the emulsifying properties of biopolymer
DENG Lingli, LUO Shiyuan, TAN Linli, AN Jianhui
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 308-313.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027653
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (4600KB) ( 3 )  
Biopolymers has been applied in the food industry for emulsifying and improved emulsion stability. The structure of the traditional emulsions and typically sophisticated emulsions were illustrated and the mechanism of emulsion instability was discussed. Protein-based biopolymers (gelatin, zein, whey protein, casein) and polysaccharides-based biopolymers (gum Arabic, pectin, guar gum, microcrystalline cellulose, starch) as emulsifiers were reviewed. Besides, the formation of protein-polysaccharides complex and related researches about the emulsion preparation and stability were introduced. Furthermore, the present review explores some potential applications in relation to the biopolymer emulsifiers in food industry.
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Research progress on composition and application of buttermilk and separation of milk fat globule membrane from buttermilk
XU Yuntao, SUN Yanjun, LIU Zhenmin, WAN Sibao, WANG Jidong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2021, 47 (24): 314-322.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.027646
Abstract ( 7 )   HTML    PDF (1995KB) ( 2 )  
Buttermilk is discharged as aqueous phase in the production of butter. During this process, owing to churning operation, some milk fat globules and milk fat globule membrane are released into the water phase and enriched. So, buttermilk has attracted much attention because it is rich in milk fat globule membrane, polar lipids and functional membrane proteins. In order to collect and utilize buttermilk well, there are a lot of researches at home and abroad. Researches in the past few years are reviewed as regards the composition and application of buttermilk and the separation of milk fat globule membrane from it, which will provide theory supports and references for the future development of buttermilk and milk fat globule membrane.
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DOI: null
The inhibiting effect of flavonoid “astilbin” on pancreatic lipase
Astilbin is a dihydroflavonol that is widely distributed in many foods and plants. Our previous study showed astilbin could significantly decrease the body weight gain and intraperitoneal adipose tissue weight, as wel. . .
DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.015839

2021
Vol.47
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2021-12-15
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2021-04-25
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2021-04-15
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2021-03-25
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2021-02-15
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2021-01-25
pp.1-328
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2021-01-15
pp.1-344
2020
Vol.46
No.24 
2020-12-25
pp.1-306
No.23
2020-12-15
pp.1-322
No.22
2020-11-25
pp.1-296
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2020-11-15
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2020-10-15
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2020-09-25
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2020-09-15
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2020-08-25
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2020-07-25
pp.1-302
No.13
2020-07-15
pp.1-314
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2020-06-25
pp.1-311
No.11
2020-06-15
pp.1-320
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2020-05-25
pp.1-308
No.9
2020-05-15
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2020-04-25
pp.1-306
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2020-04-15
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2020-03-25
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2020-03-15
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2020-02-25
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2020-02-15
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2020-01-25
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2019
Vol.45
No.24 
2019-12-25
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2019-12-15
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2019-11-25
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2019-11-15
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2019-10-25
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2019-10-15
pp.1-315
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2019-09-25
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2019-09-15
pp.1-298
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2019-08-25
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2019-08-15
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2019-07-25
pp.1-284
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2019-07-15
pp.1-280
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2019-06-25
pp.1-296
No.11
2019-06-15
pp.1-292
No.10
2019-05-25
pp.1-277
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2019-05-15
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2019-04-25
pp.1-272
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2019-04-15
pp.1-561
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2019-03-25
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2019-03-15
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2019-02-25
pp.1-262
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2019-02-15
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2019-01-25
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2019-01-15
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2018
Vol.44
No.12 
2018-12-25
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2018-11-25
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2018-10-25
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2018-09-25
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2018-08-25
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2018-07-25
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2018-04-25
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2018-03-25
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2018-01-25
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2017
Vol.43
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pp.1-268
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2017-10-25
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2017-09-25
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2017-07-25
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2017-06-25
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2016
Vol.42
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2015
Vol.41
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2014
Vol.40
No.12 
2014-12-25
pp.1-234
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2014-11-25
pp.1-275
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2014-10-25
pp.1-244
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2014-09-25
pp.1-242
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2014-08-25
pp.1-267
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2014-07-25
pp.1-250
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2014-06-25
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2014-05-25
pp.1-262
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2014-04-25
pp.1-242
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2014-03-25
pp.1-252
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2014-02-25
pp.1-238
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2014-01-25
pp.1-253
2013
Vol.39
No.12 
2013-12-25
pp.1-216
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2013-11-25
pp.1-267
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2013-10-25
pp.1-258
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2013-09-25
pp.1-218
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2013-08-25
pp.1-249
No.07
2013-07-25
pp.1-240
No.06
2013-06-25
pp.1-234
No.05
2013-05-25
pp.1-255
No.04
2013-04-25
pp.1-242
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2013-03-25
pp.1-221
No.02
2013-02-25
pp.1-249
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2013-01-25
pp.1-234
2012
Vol.38
No.12 
2012-12-25
pp.1-203
No.11
2012-11-25
pp.1-214
No.10
2012-10-25
pp.1-216
No.09
2012-09-25
pp.1-210
No.08
2012-08-25
pp.1-234
No.07
2012-07-25
pp.1-215
No.06
2012-06-25
pp.1-228
No.05
2012-05-25
pp.1-239
No.04
2012-04-25
pp.1-227
No.03
2012-03-25
pp.1-197
No.02
2012-02-25
pp.1-241
No.01
2012-01-25
pp.1-237
2011
Vol.37
No.12 
2011-12-25
pp.1-212
No.11
2011-11-25
pp.1-245
No.10
2011-10-25
pp.1-228
No.09
2011-09-25
pp.1-239
No.08
2011-08-25
pp.1-225
No.07
2011-07-25
pp.1-239
No.06
2011-06-25
pp.1-237
No.05
2011-05-25
pp.1-242
No.04
2011-04-25
pp.1-246
No.03
2011-03-25
pp.1-238
No.02
2011-02-25
pp.1-223
No.01
2011-01-25
pp.1-214


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