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  Journal Information
Governing Body: China Light Industry Council
Organizers: China National Research Institute of Food and Fermentation Industries
China Information Center of Food and Fermentation Industries
Editor-in-chief: Chi Cheng
Associate Editor-in-chief: Su Yao
Editor-in-charge: Yongjie Yao, Xin Li, Ye Li, Yawei Chen, Rui Li, Ling Dong
Editor: Xintian Wang, Guoxiao Sun, Yue Zheng
English Editor: Yawei Chen, Guoxiao Sun
Issuer: Fang Liu
Frequency of Publication: semimonthly
Place of Publication: Beijing
ISSN 0253-990X
CN 11-1802/TS
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   Table of Content
  15 January 2024, Volume 50 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
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Effect of Candida glycerinogenes 25S rRNA methyltransferase BMT5 on the stress tolerance of acetic acid and its application
ZHOU Liu, LU Xinyao, ZONG Hong, ZHUGE Bin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 1-6.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035295
Abstract ( 68 )   HTML    PDF (2580KB) ( 56 )  
Improving stress tolerance by functional genes is very important for efficient utilization of cellulose hydrolysate to produce ethanol. Candida glycerinogenes is an industrial strain with multiple stress tolerance. The rRNA methyltransferase gene CgBmt5 was obtained by screening of the genomic library. Overexpression of CgBmt5 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae improved acetic acid tolerance, and the ethanol yield of the recombinant bacteria reached 60.5 g/L with an increase of 17.7% under acetic acid stress. In C. glycerinogenes, overexpression of CgBmt5 also enhanced ethanol yield by 17.6% under acetic acid stress. Besides, the ethanol yield per cell, glucose conversion, and production intensity of both recombinant strains were improved. The ethanol yield, glucose conversion rate, and production intensity were improved by 71.7%, 65.0%, and 155.7%, respectively, using cellulose hydrolysate as substrate. Under acetic acid stress, the lipid peroxidation level of overexpressed strain was decreased, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were increased. Transcriptional analysis showed that Pfk1 and Arg3 genes were up-regulated, and Gpd1 and Cox3 genes were down-regulated in the C. glycerinogenes CgBmt5, suggesting that CgBmt5 may promote acetic acid tolerance and fermentation performance by reducing lipid peroxidation levels, increasing SOD and CAT activities, and affecting glucose metabolism and arginine synthesis. This study provides new information for the stress tolerance of yeast and the development of cellulosic ethanol technology.
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Two-stage pH control and synergistic addition of carbon and nitrogen sources for efficient L-glutamine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum
LIU Chang, LU Dandan, PU Junping, ZHANG Chunzhi, CHEN Ming
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 7-13.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.036163
Abstract ( 45 )   HTML    PDF (4829KB) ( 38 )  
To improve the fermentation level, sugar-acid conversion rate, and productivity of L-glutamine production by Corynebacterium glutamicum, the contents of glucose, ammonium sulfate, and corn syrup in fermentation medium were optimized using response surface methodology. Then the kinetic models for cell growth, substrate consumption and L-glutamine production of batch fermentation in 50 L fermenter were constructed. Furthermore, the strategy of two-stage pH control combined with coordinating the concentrations of carbon and nitrogen sources by adding glucose and ammonium sulfate in 50 L fermenter was adopted to promote L-glutamine production. The results showed that the optimized fermentation medium contained 167 g/L glucose, 61 g/L (NH4)2SO4, and 31 g/L corn syrup, respectively. L-Glutamine yield in shaking flask fermentation reached 38.13 g/L, an increase of 34.12% compared with that before optimization. After 80 h of batch fermentation in 50 L fermenter, L-glutamine yield reached 42.06 g/L, the sugar-acid conversion rate reached 25.85%, and the productivity was 0.53 g/(L·h). The strategy of two-stage pH control combined with synergistic addition of carbon and nitrogen sources in 50 L fermenter significantly promoted L-glutamine production, shortening the fermentation period to 52 h, achieving 68.01 g/L of L-glutamine, 33.93% of sugar-acid conversion and 1.31 g/(L·h) of productivity. This study provides valuable guidance for promoting industrial production of L-glutamine by C. glutamicum.
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Improvement of ε-poly-L-lysine production by Streptomyces albulus based on low-pH adaptive evolution strategy
LIU Tianyi, ZHANG Yue, WANG Liang, ZHANG Hongjian, ZHANG Jianhua, CHEN Xusheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 14-21.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035126
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML    PDF (7384KB) ( 32 )  
Streptomyces albulus is an industrial strain for ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL) production. ε-PL is a homopoly (amino acids) produced by S. albulus,which is currently used as an excellent natural food preservative in many countries due to its eminent antibacterial activity. It often suffers low-pH stress during fermentation, which easily cause a decrease in the capacity of ε-PL biosynthesis. As a result, the adaptive evolution strategy with increasing the selection pressure step by step was introduced to improve the low-pH tolerance of S. albulus GS114 in this study. We first determine the initial transfer pH (pH 4.0) and transfer time (36 h) in adaptive evolution strategy. After 93 days of adaptive evolution, the tolerance pH value of S. albulus GS114 is reduced from 4.0 to 3.6. After a lot of strain screening in each selection pH (i.e. pH 4.0, 3.8, 3.6) in acid tolerance and ε-PL yield, we obtained S. albulus ALE4.0, S. albulus ALE3.8 and S. albulus ALE3.6. We chose spore plate coating and ε-PL shake flask fermentation to evaluate the characteristics of the strains after adaptive evolution. Combined with low pH tolerance and shaker fermentation experiments, it was determined that the optimal adaptive evolutionary strain is S. albulus ALE3.6. Further study investigated the influence of pH on the production of ε-PL by S. albulus ALE3.6. Results showed that S. albulus ALE3.6 had significant fermentation advantages under different pH values compared with parent strain S. albulus GS114. In terms of ε-PL production, dry cell weight, ε-PL yield, and ε-PL productivity, S. albulus ALE3.6 had different degrees of advantages. The ε-PL production of S. albulus ALE3.6 in batch fermentation at pH 4.0, 3.8, and 3.6 were reached 4.63, 6.14, and 7.2 g/L, respectively, which were enhanced by 13.5%, 8.9% and decreased by 7.7%, compared with the original strain S. albulus GS114. Meanwhile, the dry cell weight of S. albulus ALE3.6 was achieved by 16.8, 11.8, and 14.7 g/L, respectively, which were decreased to varying degrees compared to the original strain. After comparing the fermentation processes of different pH, we chose pH 4.0 for follow-up study from the point of view of the average specific synthesis rate of the product. Finally, the ε-PL production of S. albulus ALE3.6 in fed-batch fermentation at pH 4.0 were investigated. In a 5 L scale fermentor, ε-PL production of S. albulus ALE3.6 was reached by 43.7 g/L in 192 h, which is 63% higher than the original strain S. albulus GS114. The dry cell weight was attained by 39.8 g/L, which was 30% lower than the original strain. S. albulus ALE3.6 had higher ability of cell synthesis per unit and average specific synthesis rate of products in this fermentation process than the original strain. The acquisition of the S. albulus ALE3.6 provided an object for the analysis of the mechanism of acid tolerance. Furthermore, this result showed that the low-pH tolerance of S. albulus can be significantly improved through the adaptive evolution method, and enhancing the low-pH tolerance of S. albulus is an effective way to improve its ε-PL production.
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Screening of fucoidanase-producer strains and structure characterization, antioxidant activity of enzymatic hydrolysates
YANG Liu, GU Qiuya, WANG Congcong, LI Xiwen, YU Xiaobin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 22-28.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035275
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (2422KB) ( 33 )  
In this paper, a strain with fucoidanase activity was successfully isolated from tea leaves through primary screening with a sole carbon source method and detecting with high performance gel permeation chromatography. The fermentation crude enzyme broth of the strain was used for hydrolysis of fucoidan (F) at 50 ℃ for 24 h, and the relative content of low molecular weight fucoidan (LMWF) with a molecular weight of less than 10 kDa was 59.4%. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS gene sequence of the strain revealed that it was identified as Aspergillus amstelodami. Subsequently, preparation of LMWF by enzymatic hydrolysis of fermentation crude enzyme broth of the strain, and analyzed the sulfate group content, monosaccharide composition, molecular weight and glycosidic bond type of F and LMWF. The results indicated that the sulfate group contents of F and LMWF were (33.0±0.3)% and (32.4±0.9)%; monosaccharides were mainly composed of fucose and galactose, with a small amount of xylose and glucuronic acid; the molecular weights were 277 kDa and 2 997 Da, respectively; the type of glycosidic bond was α-glycosidic bond. Furthermore, antioxidant activity results of samples before and after hydrolysis demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of LMWF was superior to that of F. The results demonstrated that the LMWF prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis of the fermentation crude enzyme broth of the strain exhibits excellent biological activity, thus providing a foundation for the potential application of fucoidan in food and industrial production.
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Construction and optimization of whole-cell transformation method for ε-poly-L-lysine production from L-lysine by Streptomyces albulus
ZHU Daojun, DIAO Wenjiao, ZHANG Jiawei, WANG Liang, ZHANG Hongjian, ZHANG Jianhua, CHEN Xusheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 29-36.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035117
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML    PDF (4156KB) ( 31 )  
Streptomyces albulus is the main producer of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL). ε-PL is a natural antimicrobial peptide used primarily as a biological preservative in food industry, but its widespread application is limited by its high costs. To improve the production efficiency of S. albulus, this study used a whole-cell transformation method to produce ε-PL. Firstly, the synthesis efficiency of ε-PL in different fermentation systems was compared, and the whole-cell transformation system was found to produce the highest ε-PL yield, reaching 10.74 g/L. Then, the transformation medium and conditions were systematically optimized, and the optimal transformation conditions was obtained: glucose 80 g/L, cell culture time 12 h, reaction temperature 30 ℃, L-lysine 15 g/L, citric acid 15 g/L, initial pH 4.0, (NH4)2SO4 6 g/L, and wet biomass 1 900 g/L. In the optimal system, the ε-PL yield and substrate conversion rate reached 13.80 g/L and 38.9%, respectively, which were 4.1 and 3.2 folds higher than those in shake flask fermentation system. Finally, the L-lysine specific permease gene (lysp) from Escherichia coli BL21 was heterologous expressed to enhance the strain's ability to uptake exogenous L-lysine. Compared with the starting strain, the recombinant strain S. albulus OE-lysp showed a 26% increase in L-lysine utilization rate and a 33% increase in substrate conversion rate. The ε-PL yield also increased by 17.21 g/L, about 6.4 times higher than that in shake flask fermentation system, which is to our knowledge the highest reported ε-PL production in shake flask fermentation system. The results demonstrate the feasibility of producing ε-PL using a whole-cell transformation method and provide a solid technical foundation for the production of high-value ε-PL using L-lysine. Therefore, this study has important theoretical significance and high economic value.
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Screening, identification, and characteristics of highly effective potato glycoalkaloids degrading bacteria
SONG Fei, LI Chen, YAN Ziru, ZHANG Na, TIAN Hongtao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 37-43.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035227
Abstract ( 48 )   HTML    PDF (3422KB) ( 42 )  
Improper storage of potatoes produces toxic glycoalkaloids (GAs), posing a severe threat to human health. Biodegradation is the first-choice technology to effectively degrade GAs from potato. In this study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from sprouted and green potato tubers. The inorganic salt medium with GAs as the sole carbon source was used for screening GA degrading bacteria. The strains were identified by physiological and biochemical determination and 16S rDNA sequencing. Then the safety of GA degrading bacteria was studied. Finally, the degradation characteristics and products of GAs were detected by HPLC and liquid chromatography-ion trap-time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-IT-TOF-MS). The results showed that strain C11, which could efficiently degrade GAs, was screened and identified as Bacillus velezensis. The strain C11 was resistant to some antibiotics but did not contain plasmid, did not produce harmful metabolites, and had no hemolytic activity. So, strain C11 had certain safety. The optimum degradation conditions of the strain C11 were 30 ℃ and pH 6.0. Mn2+ could increase the degradation ability, while Cu2+ could strongly inhibit the degradation. Additionally, strain C11 may degrade GAs into cholesterol and further metabolize and utilize them in the cell. The strain C11 has high efficiency of GAs degradation and excellent environmental adaptability, which has a high application prospect in the development of bacterial agents.
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Biosynthesis and fermentation optimization of malonic acid
LING Chunrong, YANG Xiaoyan, GENG Jiabao, MAO Yin, ZHAO Yunying, DENG Yu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 44-51.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035028
Abstract ( 47 )   HTML    PDF (5410KB) ( 35 )  
As an important dicarboxylic acid, malonic acid is widely used in many fields. However, due to the low yield of malonic acid synthesized by biological method, it is not suitable for industrial production currently. To improve the biosynthesis of malonic acid, a recombinant strain BL21(PPP) was constructed to synthesize malonate by overexpressing six genes of ppc, aspA, panD, sdhC, pa0132 and yneI by using Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) as the chassis cell. The fermentation conditions of this strain were optimized in shake flask, and it was found that the strain could produce 0.48 g/L malonic acid, which was 1-fold higher than before optimization. The effects of additional biotin and fumaric acid on malonic acid production were also investigated, and it was found that the production of malonic acid was increased by 32.59% compared with the control group. In addition, the strain could produce 1.2 g/L malonic acid at a final concentration of 8 g/L fumaric acid. Finally, in a 5 L fermenter, the production of malonic acid was increased to 12.42 g/L. In this study, the biosynthesis of malonic acid in E. coli BL21(DE3) was achieved, and the yield of malonic acid was further improved by the optimization of fermentation, which laid a foundation for further improvement of malonic acid production.
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Anti-aging effects of oyster extracts on Caenorhabditis elegans
WEI Runxia, LU Hongyu, QIN Xiaoming, WANG Liyao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 52-58.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.037222
Abstract ( 43 )   HTML    PDF (3343KB) ( 33 )  
To compare the anti-aging effects of two oyster enzymatic extracts, including enzymolysis extract of oyster (EPO), oyster peptide (OP), and oyster water extract (WPO), the basic components of the three oyster extracts were determined, and Caenorhabditis elegans was used as an animal model to study the effects of oyster extracts on lifespan, reproduction, lipofuscin accumulation, athletic ability, acute oxidative stress injury, and redox level in the body. Results showed that the basic components of EPO, OP, and WPO were different, but the main components were all proteins. Among them, OP had the highest total protein content with (66.59±0.57) g/100 g dry basis. Compared with control, the low, medium, and high concentrations (50,200,800 μg/mL) of EPO, OP, and WPO prolonged C. elegans lifespan, but the effect was not significant at low concentrations. Between three oyster extracts, only OP significantly increased the egg production of C. elegans in a concentration-dependent manner (P<0.05), with a maximum increase of 80.2%. All three extracts significantly reduced the lipofuscin accumulation in C. elegans (P<0.05) in a dose-dependent manner with a maximum of 98.15%. High concentrations of three oyster extracts (800 μg/mL) significantly improved the movement ability of aging C. elegans, increased the survival rate of C. elegans damaged by paraquat (P<0.05) as well as the activity of GSH-Ps and SOD enzymes, and reduced MDA contents in vivo by 89.2% to 98.2% (P<0.05). The effects of three oyster extracts had the order of OP>EPO>WPO. In conclusion, EPO, OP, and WPO showed different anti-aging effects. OP showed the best effect, which could provide a reference for further development of oyster foods for anti-aging.
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Storage stability and shelf-life of complex Jiaosu
LIU Heng, FAN Liuping, ZHANG Tao, PAN Mu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 59-66.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035698
Abstract ( 42 )   HTML    PDF (6015KB) ( 34 )  
In this study, the co-fermentation of Pichia kluyveri and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum was used to prepare complex Jiaosu, aiming at studying the storage stability of the products after pasteurization and establishing a reliable shelf-life prediction model. In our experiment, the complex Jiaosu after sterilization were stored at 4, 25, and 37 ℃, respectively. The sensory quality, physicochemical properties and the changes of bioactive components of the complex Jiaosu during storage were determined. In addition, according to the Arrhenius equation and zero-order kinetic reaction, the shelf-life model of the complex Jiaosu was established. The shelf life of the complex Jiaosu was predicted through this model. The results showed that the pH and total acid of complex Jiaosu stored at 4 ℃ showed the highest stability, and the pH value was 3.41 after 56 d. The ascorbic acid decreased by 33.10%, 52.11%, and 77.93% during storage and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity also showed a downward trend to varying degrees. In addition, ascorbic acid had a certain protective effect on SOD activity. The ΔE and sensory scores decreased most slowly at 4 ℃. Based on the established shelf-life model, the shelf-life of the complex Jiaosu was predicted to be 184 d at room temperature. Besides, the shelf-life model was verified at different temperatures (10, 20, and 25 ℃), and the relative errors were all below 5%. Therefore, this shelf-life model is reliable.
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Effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on microbial load and quality of Polygonati rhizoma
XU Pan, XU Jingdi, CHEN Qian, QIU Yalu, GAO Peng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 67-72.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034986
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML    PDF (2642KB) ( 33 )  
To investigate the effects of high-energy electron beam irradiation on Polygonati rhizoma, the influence of irradiation at different doses (2, 4, 6, 8, 10 kGy) on the microbial load, moisture, total ash, extracts, color, and volatile components of P. rhizoma were evaluated, with unirradiated samples as the control. The results showed that irradiation by electron beam at 2 kGy reduced the microbial load lower than the limit value by the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. With the increase of irradiation dose, the sterilization effect was improved, while irradiation had no significant effect on the moisture and total ash content (P>0.05). When the irradiation dose was or greater than 4 kGy, the extract content increased significantly (P<0.05), so did the b* value and chroma saturation, but not the color. Irradiation did not exert significant effects on the main volatile components of P. rhizoma, but in a certain dose range it accelerated the volatilization of aromatic components, nitrogen oxides, methane, alcohols, aldehydes, and ketones. Principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis showed that irradiation of 2 kGy had the least effect on the volatility of P. rhizoma. In conclusion, the irradiation of 2 kGy by high-energy electron beam can effectively reduce microbial load but no significant influence on the moisture, total ash, extract, color, and volatility of P. rhizoma.
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Effects of whole grain adjuncts on endogenous antioxidant capacity of beer
ZHAO Yagang, WU Dianhui, PENG Zhengcong, ZHANG Ming, LU Jian, XIE Guangfa
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 73-79.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035137
Abstract ( 37 )   HTML    PDF (1732KB) ( 33 )  
Endogenous antioxidant capacity is a very important index of beer quality. In this study, quinoa, buckwheat, coix seed, brown rice, naked barley, and sorghum were used as adjuncts for ale-type beer brewing with the addition level of 20%, to explore the effect of different whole grain adjuncts on the basic physicochemical indexes and antioxidant activity of beer. The antioxidant activity of beer was evaluated by DPPH free radical rate and ABTS cation free radical scavenging ability. The monophenol composition of beers with different whole grain adjuncts were determined, combined with the flavor compounds analysis and sensory evaluation, to explore the feasibility for beer brewing with high antioxidant capacity by adding different whole grains. The results showed that the six whole grain adjuncts did not display a negative impact on the fermentation process and physicochemical properties of beer. The antioxidant capacity of quinoa beer and buckwheat beer was the highest, the DPPH free radical scavenging activity of which was 1.63 and 1.68 mmol TE/g, while the control group was 1.39 mmol TE/g. Their total amount of five monophenols with strong antioxidant activity was 3.67 and 3.62 mg/L, respectively, while the treatment group was 2.11 mg/L. In a word, the beer brewed with quinoa and buckwheat had the higher monophenol content, higher sensory score and more harmonious flavor. This study provides a new theoretical reference and practical basis for the application of whole grain adjuncts to enhance the endogenous antioxidant capacity of beer.
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Effect of different lactic acid bacteria inoculation fermentation on the physicochemical characteristics and flavor of Chinese cabbage pickles
SHI Meimei, WU Yalong, LYU Pengjun, WANG Dongdong, ZHANG Qisheng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 80-88.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035828
Abstract ( 43 )   HTML    PDF (6742KB) ( 37 )  
Lactobacillus plantarum PC295, Leuconostoc mesenteroides PC137, Leuconostoc citreum PC222, Weissella cibaria PC311, Lactobacillus sakei PC229, and Lactobacillus brevis PC330 were chosen as the research strains to evaluate the fermentation characteristics of lactic acid bacteria(LAB) in Chinese cabbage pickles. On the pH, total acid, reducing sugar, microbial amount, organic acid, free amino acid, and volatile taste components of pickles, the effects of inoculation and fermentation with various LAB strains were examined. The outcomes demonstrated that following inoculation with six different LAB strains, the pH, reducing sugar, citric acid, malic acid, total free amino acid, and the amount of Escherichia coli in Chinese cabbage pickles all decreased. The fermentation capabilities of LAB strains were diverse. Both L. plantarum PC295 and L. brevis PC330 fermented quickly, consumed a lot of reducing sugar and produced a lot of acid, and effectively inhibited E. coli. Heterologous fermentation strain produced more acetic acid and ethanol. A total of 56 volatile taste components were found using headspace-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All pickle groups exhibited a predominance of alcohol molecules, including ethanol, 1-octen-3-ol, and (Z)-2-penten-1-ol. In comparison to other groups, Chinese cabbage pickles fermented by L. sakei PC229 and L. brevis PC330 had greater relative levels of aldehydes like (E, E)-2,4-heptadienal, hexanal, and acetic acid. The results of principal component analysis showed that the volatile flavor of pickles fermented by L. mesenteroides PC137 and L. citreum PC222 were similar after maturation. The pace of Chinese cabbage pickles fermentation, flavor profile, and substrate consumption varied among LAB species. The results provide the framework for further research and development of fermenters for pickles made from Chinese cabbage.
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Effect of synergistic crosslinking agent based on blending and layer-by-layer assembly method on properties of agar/sodium alginate composite film
WANG Pai, YANG Shaoling, QI Bo, YANG Xianqing, LI Chunsheng, WANG Di, ZHAO Yongqiang, LI Laihao, HU Xiao, CHEN Shengjun
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 89-97.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034032
Abstract ( 34 )   HTML    PDF (6514KB) ( 33 )  
Agar/sodium alginate blend films and bilayer films were prepared by direct mixing and layer-by-layer assembly, and the cross-linking agents involving citric acid and ferulic acid were introduced. By investigating the mechanical strength, water resistance, thermal stability, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR), and microstructure of the composite films, the effects of different film-making methods combined with cross-linking agents on the properties of the composite films were explored. Results showed that compared with the blend films, the bilayer films showed better mechanical properties and water resistance. After adding crosslinking agents, the water vapor permeability of the films decreased significantly (P<0.05) and the tensile strength, thermal stability, and opacity increased. Among them, citric acid crosslinked bilayer film had the best comprehensive properties, namely, tensile strength of 51.57 MPa, elongation at break of 26.02%, water solubility of 24.42%, and swelling rate of 101.67%. FT-IR analysis showed that citric acid was covalently crosslinked by esterification with seaweed polysaccharide to form CO, while ferulic acid was noncovalently crosslinked by hydrogen bonding with the film-forming substrate. SEM analysis showed that agar and sodium alginate had good compatibility, and the surface of each film was flat and smooth. After adding a crosslinking agent, the cross-sections of the films were smoother and the structure of the films was more compact. Therefore, the combination of layer-by-layer assembly and crosslinking agents can prepare a composite membrane with better comprehensive properties.
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Properties of casein micelle/poly (lactic acid) electrospinning composite fiber membrane and its loading capacity for baicalin
ZHEN Chenbo, YANG Min, QIN Juanjuan, ZHENG Jie, LIAO Haizhou, WEI Yanming
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 98-104.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034345
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML    PDF (3672KB) ( 30 )  
Baicalin is a kind of flavonoids, which has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antiviral, and other pharmacological effects, but it has poor water solubility and low bioavailability. To improve the water solubility of baicalin, a casein micelle/poly (lactic acid) composite fiber membrane loaded with baicalin was prepared by electrospinning technology. The microstructure, hydrophobicity, solubility, and in vitro release of baicalin were studied. Results showed that baicalin had little effect on the microstructure of the fibers. With the increase in the ratio of casein micelles, the fiber diameter decreased and the fiber-forming performance decreased. When the mass ratio of casein micelles to poly (lactic acid) reached 2∶1, the fiber diameter was the smallest and the fiber-forming ability was better. The results of infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction showed that baicalin was encapsulated in the fibers. Moreover, casein micelles improved the swelling and degradation rate of poly (lactic acid) fiber membranes. With the increase of casein micelles, the hydrophilicity and degradation rate of the membrane were enhanced, and the swelling rate and swelling time were reduced. In vitro release results showed that the casein micelle-poly (lactic acid) fiber membrane had a good controlled release effect on baicalin. The results can provide a reference for the load of baicalin.
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Effect of Fe2+ addition in membrane filtration process and under different drying process conditions on structural and functional properties of bovine milk micelle casein
FENG Zizhen, YANG Jitao, ZHENG Jie, QIN Juanjuan, YANG Min
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 105-111.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034418
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML    PDF (5118KB) ( 31 )  
The micellar casein was prepared by membrane filtration with different concentrations of Fe2+ water detergent from defatted fresh bovine milk, and the micellar casein concentrate powder was dried by freeze-drying and spray-drying, and the changes in related properties such as sample structure, oil absorption, solubility, emulsification, turbidity, and thermal stability were analyzed. The findings revealed that different drying processes and Fe2+ addition had a significant impact on the secondary structure of casein micelles while having little effect on solubility. Under the spray-dry process, the addition of Fe2+ to micellar casein increased its thermal stability and turbidity, improved emulsification and emulsion stability, and enhanced oil absorption. The addition of Fe2+ increased the thermal stability and turbidity of micellar casein during the freeze-drying process, but its oil absorption capacity decreased and emulsification activity improved, with the addition of 0.1 mg/L Fe2+ providing the best emulsification activity. The outcomes of this study can be used to guide the development of micellar casein food products.
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Effects of different polysaccharides on Maillard reaction of chicken liver enzymatic hydrolysate and its application
WANG Qing, CAI Haowen, LU Xinyao, ZHUGE Bin, ZONG Hong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 112-119.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035333
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML    PDF (2125KB) ( 27 )  
Effects of polysaccharides on the flavor and antioxidant properties of the Maillard reaction products (MRPs) of chicken liver enzymatic hydrolysate was studied and the MRPs applications was investigated. Compared to MRPs with no polysaccharide, the absorbance values of MRPs of plat mushroom polysaccharide and chicken liver enzymatic hydrolysate (CLPHM-FMP) at 420 nm and 294 nm were increased by 67% and 20%, and the brightness value L* was significantly reduced indicating that flat mushroom polysaccharides (FMP) could promote the formation of intermediate products and browning products. FT-IR results showed that the addition of FMP contributed to the consumption of amino groups in the reaction and that its polyhydroxylated sugar chains bound to the enzymatic hydrolysate of chicken liver to the highest extent. It was found that the content of alcohols and heterocyclic compounds in CLPHM-FMP increased by 166.71% and 53.37% respectively, and the content of aldehydes decreased by 73.12% by GC-MS analysis. FMP weakened the fishy smell of MRPs, enhanced their baking flavor, and played an important role in the formation of meat flavor. FMP increased the Fe3+ reduction capacity, DPPH radical scavenging and ·OH scavenging of its MRPs by 38%, 39%, and 23%, respectively. The addition of CLPHM-FMP could effectively maintain the textural properties of Suji (bean product), and the contents of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and heterocyclic compounds were increased by 52%, 22% and 38% respectively, which contributed to the meat flavor formation of Suji. In conclusion, the FMP is beneficial to the flavor formation of chicken liver enzymatic hydrolysate and its antioxidant function, and has good prospects for application in flavored foods.
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Effects of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed polysaccharide on ice recrystallization, growth habit, and calorimetric behavior
SUN Xianbao, SONG Hong, WANG Jiangmei, WU Yan, ZHOU Wei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 120-126.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034142
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML    PDF (7877KB) ( 39 )  
The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP) on ice crystal growth. Ice recrystallization, ice growth habit, and calorimetric behavior of TSP solutions were studied by the “sucrose sandwich” assay with Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner (LSW) theory, dynamic ice shaping assay, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. TSP showed a concentration-dependent conformational change in the aqueous solution. Adding 0.25% TSP could effectively reduce the ice recrystallization rate, with a 10-fold reduction of growth rate in 30 min compared to a blank (49% sucrose). The dynamic ice shaping study showed weak ice-shaping activity of TSP, implying a weak binding with ice. DSC analysis showed that TSP significantly depressed ice nucleation temperature but had little impact on the melting point. Notably, as TSP concentration increased above threshold concentration (0.5% in IRI experiments and 1.5% in DSC experiments), the ice recrystallization inhibition (IRI) activity and the nucleation depression effect dropped. An ice-growth inhibition mechanism of TSP based on an interface-related effect was proposed. These results suggested the potential of naturally sourced TSP as a novel ice growth inhibitor in frozen food and also shed new light on understanding the antifreeze mechanism of natural polysaccharides.
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Effect of initial fat content on storage quality and shelf life of ultra-high temperature sterilized milk
XI Hongjie, SONG Lijun, DENG Yuming, LI Zepeng, LU Lixin, ZENG Ke
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 127-132.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034566
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (2703KB) ( 33 )  
The effects of initial fat content and storage temperature on the quality change and shelf life of ultra-high temperature sterilized (UHT) milk during storage were studied. The color, degree of protein hydrolysis, and carbonyl content of UHT pure milk with different initial fat content were analyzed during storage at 23 ℃, 30 ℃, and 37 ℃ without light, the Pearson coefficient of each index on the sensory score was compared, and the shelf-life prediction model was established using Arrhenius equation. With the prolongation of storage time and the increase of storage temperature, the browning index, degree of protein hydrolysis, and carbonyl content of the samples increased, while the sensory score decreased. Pearson correlation analysis was performed on the sensory score and other indicators, and the browning index was selected as the key indicator to reflect the quality change. A shelf-life prediction model based on the effect of initial fat content and storage temperature was established. Compared with the actual shelf-life verification, the relative error of the predicted value of the model was less than 10%. The established prediction model can effectively predict the shelf life of UHT milk with different initial fat content under no light.
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Production process optimization of fresh Halloumi cheese based on BP neural network and genetic algorithm
SUN Jia, ZHENG Yuanrong, LIU Zhenmin, ZHANG Juan, XU Xingmin, JIA Xiangfei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 133-140.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034871
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML    PDF (8955KB) ( 29 )  
To improve the quality of Halloumi cheese, BP neural network and genetic algorithm were used to optimize the multi-process parameters of Halloumi cheese production process. The addition amount of CaCl2, heating temperature, and pressing pressure were used as the optimization variables and two neural network models were established with the yield and sensory score of finished cheese as optimization objectives. The accuracies of the models reached 98.936% and 98.255%, respectively. After that, genetic algorithm was used to search for optimization. The results indicated that under the premise of yield rate higher than 10% and sensory score greater than 85, the optimal production conditions with cheese yield as target were determined as follows: CaCl2 addition of 0.014 4%, heating temperature of 83.5 ℃, pressing pressure of 5.12 kPa, and the maximum yield rate reached 12.01%. The optimal production conditions for sensory quality were as follows: CaCl2 addition of 0.017 1%, heating temperature of 83.7 ℃, pressing pressure of 10.38 kPa, and the highest sensory score reached 94.5. This method can effectively realize the rapid optimization of Halloumi cheese production process and provide a theoretical basis for promoting the industrialization of Halloumi cheese.
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Effects of complex phosphate chelator on quality of ultra-high pressure treated camel milk
ZHANG Mengmeng, ZHAO Jingya, SHUANG Quan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 141-147.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033448
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (5126KB) ( 30 )  
Camel milk has high nutritional value and health benefits, but the curdling phenomenon often occurs during ultra-high-pressure sterilization. Thus, it is necessary to add a phosphate chelating agent to improve the stability of camel milk. The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of ultra-high-pressure treatment on the quality of camel milk. In this study, camel milk after ultra-high-pressure treatment was used as the research object. The types and proportions of different phosphate chelating agents were evaluated by sensory evaluation. The process of ultra-high-pressure treatment after adding a phosphate chelating agent was optimized. Then, the ultra-high pressure camel milk that was added with compound phosphate chelating agent was analyzed by physical and chemical indexes, rheological properties, and sensory flavor. Camel milk was treated with a complex phosphate chelator consisting of 0.07% sodium pyrophosphate and 0.1% sodium hexametaphosphate at ultra-high-pressure of 550 MPa for 22 min. Results showed a decrease in acidity value, an increase in pH, an improvement in rheological properties, a decrease in acidity, bitterness, and astringency, and a decrease in sensitivity to nitrogen oxides, aldehydes, ketones, and aromatic compounds. In conclusion, the addition of a complex phosphate chelating agent can improve the quality of camel milk processed under ultra-high pressure. This study provides the experimental basis and theoretical basis for the comprehensive utilization of camel milk as well as the industrialization of camel milk.
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Research on screening and compounding of antioxidants and application in coffee beverages
CHANG Xuan, XU Chunming, CHEN Jia, ZHANG Jiajing, GE Lixia, YANG Lihong, WANG Gennv, WANG Xujie, ZHANG Xin, CHEN Xiong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 148-154.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033647
Abstract ( 37 )   HTML    PDF (5121KB) ( 30 )  
To develop antioxidants that can be directly used in beverage systems, this study investigated the DPPH free radical scavenging rate of different water-soluble and oil-soluble antioxidants, the effect on the oxidative stability of coconut oil emulsions, and the stability of compound antioxidants and their application in beverages. Results showed that there was no positive correlation between the DPPH scavenging rate of antioxidants and the oxidative stability of lipids. Among the water-soluble antioxidants, bamboo leaf flavonoids and licorice extract were the most effective ones, while those of oil-soluble antioxidants were butylatedhydroxytoluen, tertiarybutylhydroquinone, and vitamin E. The stability of the compound antioxidant was studied by the change of particle size during storage. Results showed that the D[4,3] and particle size distribution of vitamin E and licorice extract, vitamin E and bamboo leaf flavonoids compound antioxidants did not change during 8 weeks of storage at 55 ℃. Coffee beverages were used as a model to study the effect of compound antioxidants on flavor stability. Results showed that the addition of compound antioxidants significantly reduced the accumulation of oxidation products of oil in coffee compared with single antioxidants. The sensory evaluation results showed that the addition of compound antioxidants inhibited the generation of oil oxidation odor, the aroma was more harmonious, and the overall acceptance was the highest.
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Optimization of formula and antioxidant activity of Lycium barbarum leaf flavone effervescent tablets
ZHA Xiaotong, PEI Yufang, MA Ruixue, FAN Yanli
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 155-162.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034286
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML    PDF (6066KB) ( 32 )  
This study aimed to optimize the formula of flavonoid effervescent tablets from Lycium barbarum leaves and evaluate its quality and antioxidant capacity, providing guidance for the functional development and utilization of L. barbarum leaves. The effervescent tablets of flavonoids from L. barbarum leaves were prepared by the semi-dry pressing method. The formulation of effervescent tablets was optimized by a single factor, Plackett-Burman, and Box-Behnken tests with the sensory score as the main evaluation index. The weight, hardness, disintegration time, foaming capacity, pH, and flavonoid content of L. barbarum leaf effervescent tablets were determined. The scavenging ability of DPPH radical, ABTS cationic radical, hydroxyl radical, and iron reduction ability were determined, evaluating its quality and antioxidant ability. The best formula of L. barbarum leaf flavonoids effervescent tablets was as follows: L. barbarum leaf flavonoids extract of 6%, polyvinylpyrrolidone of 1%, maltodextrin of 25%, magnesium stearate of 1.5%, stevioside of 0.9%, the starch of 9%, microcrystalline cellulose of 1.5%, disintegrating agent of 55.1%, and the proportion of citric acid-sodium bicarbonate of 1∶0.6. The average weight, hardness, disintegration time, foaming volume, pH, and flavonoid content of L. barbarum leaf effervescent tablets were (408±11) mg, (46.7±0.51) N, (217.8±2.07) s, (5.01±0.49) mL, 4.80±0.004, and (47.93±0.05) mg/g, respectively. The IC50 of flavonoid effervescent tablets for DPPH free radicals, ABTS cationic radicals, and ·OH were 0.77 mg/mL, 2.01 mg/mL, and 1.10 mg/mL. When the mass concentration was 5 mg/mL, the iron reduction capacity of L. barbarum leaf flavonoid effervescent tablets was 28.85% of vitamin C. The technology of L. barbarum leaf flavonoid effervescent tablets is stable and feasible and has good antioxidant activity.
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Isolation, purification, structure characterization, and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Vicatia thibetica de Boiss
ZHAO Zesu, NAN Mujia, LIU Shuangping, MAO Jian
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 163-169.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034819
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML    PDF (1863KB) ( 31 )  
A new polysaccharide was extracted from Vicatia thibetica de Boiss using an ultrasound-assisted enzymatic method. After separation and purification by DEAE-52 cellulose ion column chromatography and Sephadex G-100 glucan gel column chromatography, the water-soluble Vicatia thibetica de Boiss polysaccharide (VTP-1) was obtained. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC), ion chromatography, UV-vis spectrum, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and Congo red experiment were applied to analyze the molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, spatial structure, physicochemical properties, and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides. Results showed that the relative molecular weight of VTP-1 was 96.81 kDa. It was composed of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, and mannose in the molar ratio of 5.63∶2.79∶86.36∶3.02∶1.59. VTP-1 was identified as a neutral heteropolysaccharide containing both α- and β-type glycosidic bonds and did not have a triple helix structure. The IC50 values of DPPH free radical, ABTS cationic radical, and hydroxyl radical scavenging ability were 1.808, 1.845, and 4.634 mg/mL, respectively, and the inhibition rates showed a dose-dependent increase, indicating that VTP-1 had good antioxidant activity in vitro. In conclusion, this experiment was the first to study the polysaccharide of Vicatia thibetica de Boiss, which proved its antioxidant activity in vitro. It could provide a theoretical basis for the application of Vicatia thibetica de Boiss polysaccharides in the functional food and medicine industry.
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Component identification and stability investigation of pigments from Bauhinia blakeana Dunn flower
LONG Yongyi, CHEN Yujiao, GUO Song, ZHOU Yongsheng, YAN Qiwei, LU Xiang, ZHANG Peng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 170-176.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033289
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML    PDF (5252KB) ( 34 )  
This study analyzed the anthocyanoside component of Bauhinia blakeana Dunn flower extracts by HPLC, investigated the chromaticity and thermal stability of B. blakeana flower pigment, and explored the influences of pH, temperature, light, metal ions, and sweeteners on the stability of B. blakeana flower pigment. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content of the B. blakeana flower pigment was 11.28 mg/g, which was mainly composed of petunia anthocyanin (84.65 μg/g), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside (6 801.12 μg/g), paeoniflorin-3-O-glucoside (2 069.49 μg/g), and centaurea 3-O-glucoside (667.9 μg/g). The color of the pigment varied with pH, being bright red at pH 3 and blue-violet at pH 7. The thermogravimetric residue of the pigment was 25.79%, and it had good thermal stability in the range of 54.6-111.3 ℃. At pH of 3, Ca2+, Mg2+, glucose, and maltose had no significant effect on the stability of the pigment solutions; at pH of 7, sorbitol and lactose had no significant effect on the stability of the pigment solutions, but Fe2+ had a significant destructive effect on the color of the pigment solutions. The B. blakeana flower is rich in anthocyanosides with high stability, which is a promising plant resource for the development of new functional ingredients and anthocyanoside application products. The results of the study can provide a scientific basis for the in-depth processing of B. blakeana flower pigment and its wide application in textile industry and food industries.
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Effect of ultrasonic aging on the quality of Mu-jujube vinegar based on electronic tongue
WANG Qian, YIN Yuxi, FENG Zhenghua, LIU Yinlan, YIN Shengnan, REN Difeng
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 177-182.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035207
Abstract ( 34 )   HTML    PDF (2069KB) ( 39 )  
The optimum technology of ultrasonic aging Mu-jujube(Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) vinegar was determined, and the effect of ultrasonic aging on the nutritional and sensory quality of jujube vinegar was investigated based on electronic tongue. Taking the content of total esters in fruit vinegar as the index, the optimum ultrasonic aging process was determined by single factor test and orthogonal test as ultrasonic power of 300 W, ultrasonic time of 45 min and ethanol addition of 0.4%. Under these technological conditions, the brightness of fruit vinegar with ultrasonic treatment increased and the overall color developed to red and yellow, but the color change of the vinegar was not obvious. The content of vitamin C, flavonoids, polyphenols, cyclic adenosine monophosphate and other active substances in fruit vinegar did not decrease significantly. Meanwhile, ultrasonic treatment could soften the taste of jujube fruit vinegar. Ultrasonic treatment accelerated the esterification reaction in jujube fruit vinegar, which indicated that ultrasonic treatment was a promising technology to accelerate the aging of fruit vinegar and provided a possibility for improving the quality of fruit vinegar.
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Research on differential scanning calorimetry adulteration analysis method based on two different characteristics of extra virgin olive oil
WEI Yan, SONG Zhiqiang, WU Weidong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 183-188.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034628
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (1684KB) ( 33 )  
This paper presented a comprehensive study of soybean oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) commonly consumed commercially based on two aspects of edible oil physical characteristics and oxidative stability using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In terms of physical characteristics, DSC cooling curves were selected to analyze EVOO adulteration. As the adulteration ratio of soybean oil increased, the enthalpy value ΔH of crystallization of the oil sample decreased from 29.78 J/g for EVOO to 6.133 J/g for 40% adulterated mixed oil between -40 ℃ and -60 ℃ (Y=57.556X-28.44, R2=0.997). In terms of oxidative stability, the oxidative induction time with the oxidation temperature of 160 ℃ gradually decreased from 25.8 min for EVOO to 17.8 min for 40% adulterated mixed oil (Y=-19.4X+25.64, R2=0.996), the established adulteration model also correlated well. Both of these methods using DSC to examine adulteration could effectively identify the adulteration of soybean oil in EVOO with various characteristics, which could select a suitable method to better deal with the problem of EVOO adulteration according to different practical situations.
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Effect of different preparation methods on digestibility of highland barley resistant starch
WANG Zexu, ZHOU Wenju, CHEN Zhengxing, ZHANG Xin, DU Yan, TU Zhaoxin, LI Juan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 189-195.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033750
Abstract ( 35 )   HTML    PDF (2783KB) ( 30 )  
Resistant starch can regulate blood glucose levels and improve the intestinal environment. Using highland barley starch as raw material, highland barley resistant starch was prepared by hydrothermal cooling cycle method, enzymatic branching method, hydrothermal cooling-multiple hygrothermal treatment method, and enzymatic branching-multiple hygrothermal treatment method. Results showed that the content of highland barley-resistant starch prepared by hydrothermal cooling cycle (enzymatic branching)-damp heat method was significantly higher than that of highland barley-resistant starch prepared by hydrothermal cooling cycle method and enzymatic branching method (P<0.05). The relative crystallinity and short-range order of highland barley starch were reduced by different preparation methods. Besides, the starch granules were burst by different preparation methods. The structural changes improved the digestibility, gelatinization, and water absorption of highland barley starch, revealing the mechanism of the digestibility and thermodynamic properties of highland barley-resistant starch was regulated by structure. It is hoped that the study will provide a positive basis for the application of highland barley-resistant starch as an improver in rice flour products.
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Effect of sweet potato leaf powder addition on bread quality, antioxidant properties, and starch digestibility
DONG Xiaolin, MA Liping, BIAN Xuejie, JIAO Kunpeng, YANG Haokun, WANG Chengyuan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 196-203.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033380
Abstract ( 33 )   HTML    PDF (4013KB) ( 31 )  
To investigate the effect of sweet potato leaf (SPL) powder on the quality of bread, this study measured the basic indexes and sensory evaluation of bread with different additive amounts of SPL powder, and the effect of SPL powder on the antioxidant and in vitro digestive properties of bread was analyzed by in vitro experiments. Results showed that the specific volume of SPL bread decreased, the moisture content increased, and the color became darker compared with the control bread. There was no significant difference in the textural properties of the bread with 0.5% and 1% SPL powder, and the total sensory evaluation score was higher than that of the control bread. The total phenolic content (0.67-3.10 mg GAE/g), DPPH radical scavenging ability (24.15%-67.47%), and the relative content of resistant starch (6.48%-27.47%) of the bread increased significantly with the increase of SPL powder. In conclusion, the addition of SPL powder can improve the antioxidant and anti-digestive properties of bread, which provides a reference for the application of SPL in bread-based baked foods.
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Study on protein degradation during the processing of Longxi bacon
CHEN Jingjing, SHI Xixiong, FAN Xiaoning, BAO Xiaoming, CHEN Cheng, GUO Zhaobin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 204-210.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033641
Abstract ( 37 )   HTML    PDF (2226KB) ( 33 )  
To clarify the protein degradation during the processing of Longxi bacon, the hind leg meat of a pig was taken as the research object, the changes of total nitrogen, non-protein nitrogen, protein degradation index, trichloroacetic acid (TCA)-soluble peptide, peptides, and free amino acid in five different processing stages were determined. Results showed that the total nitrogen content first decreased slightly and then increased significantly during the processing of Longxi bacon, but the non-protein nitrogen content and protein degradation index increased significantly (P<0.05), reaching a maximum in the finished bacon, and the raw meat were 76.8% and 74.2% lower than the finished bacon, respectively. The content of TCA-soluble peptide during the processing of Longxi bacon increased from 5.79 μmol Tyr/g in the raw meat to 19.11 μmol Tyr/g in the finished bacon. According to the identification by liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS), the number of total peptides increased first and then decreased, and the main peptides produced by the degradation of bacon were myosin, nebulin, troponin, and actin. In addition, the content of total free amino acids increased significantly during the processing of Longxi bacon (P<0.05). In conclusion, the non-protein nitrogen, protein degradation index, TCA-soluble peptide, and total free amino acid content increased significantly during the processing of Longxi bacon, the total number of peptides first increased and then decreased, and the peptides were mainly derived from myosin, nebulin, troponin, and actin, which could provide a theoretical basis for the formation of flavor substances.
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Effect of temperature fluctuation on quality and moisture migration of Pseudosciaena crocea during cold chain circulation
LI Yumei, SITU Huiyuan, GAO Jialong, ZHANG Chaohua, QIN Xiaoming, CAO Wenhong, LIN Haisheng, CHEN Zhongqin
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 211-218.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033799
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML    PDF (2343KB) ( 29 )  
To investigate the changes of freshness and quality of cultured Pseudosciaena crocea during low-temperature circulation, this paper simulated the temperature conditions of cold chain and broken chain circulation and analyzed the trends of freshness indicators, such as sensory, color difference, texture, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value, K value, and the total bacterial colony of P. crocea during the circulation process. Results showed that the sensory score and L* value of P. crocea decreased with the extension of circulation time, while the values of color difference b*, TVB-N, K, and total bacterial colony increased gradually. The freshness indexes changed more significantly in the broken chain group compared to the cold chain group (P<0.05). The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) showed that the bound water stability of the broken chain group decreased rapidly, indicating that temperature fluctuations in the broken chain circulation had a greater impact on the bound water of fish and accelerated the deterioration of freshness quality of samples. The peak area of bound water (A2b+A21) was significantly correlated with the indicators of total bacterial colonization, organoleptic quality, color (L* and b* values), and chewiness, while the peak area of less mobile water (A22) and the peak area of free water (A23) were significantly correlated with the TVB-N and K values. Results reflect the potential quality and safety risks of P. crocea due to temperature fluctuations during cold chain distribution and provide a reference for the application of low-field NMR technology in monitoring product quality during cold chain logistics.
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Isolation and characterization of collagens from skin of snakehead fish
WEN Qingshi, CHEN Baiyang, WANG Songtao, TONG Yuqin, WEN Fuli, ZHOU Jingwei, CHEN Yong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 219-224.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033471
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (2157KB) ( 30 )  
In this research, collagen was extracted from the skin of snakehead fish by the combination of acetic acid and pepsin. The effects of acetic acid concentration, solid-liquid ratio, enzyme dosage, and extraction time on the extraction rate of collagen were investigated by single factor experiment and orthogonal test. Results showed that when the concentration of acetic acid was 0.5 mol/L, the addition of pepsin was 1% of the weight of fish skin, the extraction time was 48 h, and the solid-liquid ratio was 1∶70, the extraction rate of collagen reached 51.2%. The structure of collagen was tested by amino acid composition analysis, circular dichroism, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. It was found that the collagen extracted by this method had typical type I collagen characteristics, its 3-helix structure remained intact, and its molecular weight was about 340 kDa. The protein content of the final goods was more than 95%, the hydroxyproline content was more than 5%, and the ash content was less than 1%, which could be used in medical materials, cosmetics, functional foods and other fields.
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Effect of ice-temperature dehydration on quality of grass carp surimi gel
WANG Yuanyuan, WAN Jinqing, DU Xinyu, WANG Youjun, SUN Xiaolin, TONG Nian
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 225-231.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033773
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML    PDF (6714KB) ( 31 )  
To investigate the effect of ice-temperature dehydration on the gel quality of grass carp surimi, the grass carp surimi was dehydrated to 70%, 60%, 50%, and 40% of moisture content, respectively, and the rinsed and blank samples (80% of moisture content) were used as the control group. Sensory evaluation, gel strength, water holding capacity, water distribution and presence, texture characteristics, microstructure, and protein secondary structure were used as evaluation indicators. Results showed that the sensory acceptance was higher when the water content of grass carp surimi gel was 60%. The gel strength was 394.44 g·cm, which was 125% and 77% higher than that of the blank group and the rinsed group, respectively. According to the national standard, the surimi grade was increased from AB grade (gel strength ≥100 g·cm) of the blank group to AA grade (gel strength ≥300 g·cm), which was increased by 2 grades, close to AAA grade (gel strength ≥400 g·cm). The highest water holding capacity was 98.08%, and the microstructure observed by electron microscope showed dense and uniform. The binding ability of the gel network structure to water was enhanced. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the relative content of β-sheet and random coil structures increased from 20.2% and 18.2% to 23.14% and 22.42%, respectively. Results showed that the gel quality could be improved by reducing the partial moisture content of grass carp surimi by ice-temperature dehydration, and when the moisture content was 60%, the sample quality was better and the consumer sensory acceptance was higher.
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Study on preparation of seafood-like seasoning base by Maillard reaction from mussel cooking liquid and analysis of volatile flavor compounds
KE Zhigang, WU Tao, CHEN Hui, ZHOU Xuxia, JIN Youding, DAI Yangzhang, DENG Shanggui, ZHOU Xiaomin, DING Yuting, LIU Shulai, XIANG Xingwei
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 232-240.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033572
Abstract ( 36 )   HTML    PDF (1766KB) ( 29 )  
To prepare a mussel-like seasoning base, mussel cooking liquid was concentrated and enzymatically hydrolyzed, and then carried out by Maillard reaction in this study. The optimal conditions for the Maillard reaction were determined through a single-factor experiment combined with the Friedman ranking test, absorbance measurement, response surface optimization, and fuzzy mathematical sensory evaluation. Results showed that the optimal conditions for the Maillard reaction were 3% reducing sugar, a reaction temperature of 115 ℃, a reaction time of 2 h, and an initial pH of 7.5. Analysis of the volatile compounds in the Maillard reaction product by GC-MS showed that aldehydes and ketones were the main volatile flavor compounds, and pyrazines, furans, and other compounds enriched the overall aroma of the Maillard reaction products. The results in this work provide a reference for the high-value utilization of mussel processing by-products.
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Construction of evaluation model for volatile flavor compounds in beef tallow hotpot seasoning based on principal component analysis
CHAO Zhonghao, XIA Zhiqiang, CHEN Gang, YANG Jian, YAN Fang, QIU Zhiqiang, JIANG Xuan, XU Xiuli, ZOU Xiaoqiang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 241-247.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.032785
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML    PDF (1940KB) ( 41 )  
Thin film solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to analyze and compare the volatile flavor components of four beef tallow hotpot seasoning brands with high market share for business (B end) and consumers (C end) and established a mathematical model to evaluate their difference. Results showed that 154 kinds of flavor substances were detected in B-end products and 158 kinds of flavor substances were detected in C-end products, while the same 25 flavor compounds were detected in all eight samples. By comparing products of the same brand, it was found that the proportion of hydrocarbons in the C-end product had dropped significantly. Principal component analysis was used to analyze the flavor composition of hotpot seasoning products, and the results showed that the cumulative variance contribution rate of the first seven principal component factors reached 100%, which could effectively characterize the flavor information of hotpot seasoning materials. Finally, a principal component analysis model was constructed. The comprehensive evaluation index was calculated and the flavor was evaluated and ranked. The Pearson correlation analysis found that the correlation between the comprehensive score of the principal component and the sensory evaluation results was extremely significant (P<0.01), and the correlation coefficient was 0.908, indicating that the constructed model could effectively evaluate the flavor of hotpot seasoning.
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Effects of different reheating methods on quality of pre-roasted fish
WANG Yuanyuan, SHANG Shan, DING Ruosong, JIANG Pengfei, FU Baoshang, QI Libo
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 248-255.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034629
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML    PDF (2831KB) ( 36 )  
To investigate the quality differences of prepared dishes after reheating, three reheating methods (microwave reheating, steam reheating, and baking reheating) were used in the processing of pre-roasted fish. The effects of different reheating methods on the quality of pre-cooked fish were evaluated by analyzing shear force, color difference, thiobarbituric acid reaction substances value (TBARS), moisture content and distribution, volatile flavor substances, and sensory evaluation. Results showed that compared with steam reheating and baking reheating, fish after microwave reheating had the lowest shear force and the highest tenderness, and the shear force of the fish after baking reheating was about 3.16 times that of fish after microwave reheating. The moisture content of fish after microwave reheating was the highest, which was about 1.04 times that of fish after baking reheating. TBARS value of fish after microwave reheating was the highest, about 1.52 times that of fish after steam reheating. More kinds of volatile flavor substances were detected in fish of microwave reheating, with the highest content of aldehydes and sensory evaluation score. In terms of reheating time, microwave reheating time was the shortest. Based on various parameters, microwave reheating is a more suitable reheating method for pre-roasted fish. This study provides theoretical support for the reheating processing of prepared dishes.
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Changes in sugar and organic acid contents and sweet and sour flavor of three Jinggang honey pomelo varieties after harvest
LI Feng, LIN Xiong, ZHAN Minxuan, LI Hongxiang, CHEN Jinyin, MA Qiaoli
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 256-264.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033476
Abstract ( 31 )   HTML    PDF (10913KB) ( 30 )  
Jinggang honey pomelos mainly including Taoxi, Jinsha, and Jinlan are the local pomelo germplasm resources in Ji’an City, Jiangxi province. To provide a base for controlling their storage quality, the changes of sucrose, fructose, glucose, citrate, oxalate, malate, quinate, ascorbate, and tartrate were quantified by HPLC-20A, and the sweetness and acidity flavor were investigated during the 150-day storage period at an interval of 30 days. Results showed that more than 47% of the sugar in the three varieties was sucrose and more than 52% of the acid was citric acid. During storage, sucrose fluctuated and decreased while glucose and fructose increased first and then decreased. Citric acid and total acid increased and peaked after 90-120 days. The changing trend of the sweetness-acidity ratio was similar to that of the sugar-acid ratio but different from that of the solid-acid ratio. The overall performance was Jinsha > Jinlan > Taoxi. The sweetness-acidity ratio of Jinsha and Jinlan pomelo decreased to the valley value after 120 days, and the sweetness-acidity ratio of Taoxi pomelo reached a peak after 60 days. Principal component analysis showed that the changes in the sugar-acid flavor of the three varieties were specific. The commonness was that the sweetness value was positively correlated with the total sugar content, and the sweetness-acidity ratio and sugar components (glucose and fructose) were negatively correlated with citric acid and total acid, respectively. The sweetness-acidity ratio of Taoxi pomelo was positively correlated with glucose and the sweetness-acidity ratio of Jinsha and Jinlan pomelo was positively correlated with sucrose. According to the change rule of sweetness-acidity ratio, the critical period of sweet-acid flavor change of Taoxi pomelo was 60 days, and that of Jinsha and Jinlan pomelo was 120 days.
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Taste characteristics and main contributing substances of needle-shaped green tea in Chongqing
YANG Juan, YUAN Linying, WANG Jie, WANG Tinghua, WU Quan, XU Ze, ZHONG Yingfu
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 265-271.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033560
Abstract ( 34 )   HTML    PDF (3591KB) ( 32 )  
Taste is an important index for tea evaluation. To explore the taste characteristics of needle-shaped green tea in Chongqing, the main flavor components and contents of green tea were detected and analyzed in combination with the contribution of principal components and flavor substances. Results showed that Chongqing needle-shaped green tea had a heavy, mellow, and fresh taste, and the overall quality was good. Main quality indicators included that the content of water extract was 45.2%-49.6%, the content of polyphenols was 14.7%-21.6%, the content of free amino acids was 2.8%-5.6%, and the content of caffeine was 3.4%-4.7%. Principal component analysis showed that aspartic acid, threonine, serine, asparagine, alanine, methionine, isoleucine, leucine, tyrosine, histidine, lysine, arginine, gallic acid (GA), epigallocatechin (EGC), and epicatechin gallate (ECG) were the main characteristic components of Chongqing needle-shaped green tea. According to the analysis of taste substance contribution (Dot value), aspartic acid, glutamic acid, GA, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), ECG, EGC, and catechin (D/L-C) had important contributions to the formation of taste. Cluster analysis of taste components showed that the cluster effect of needle-shaped green tea in Yongchuan and Banan was better. This study provides a reference for the formation and improvement of the quality of Chongqing needle-shaped green tea.
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Research on rapid detection of strong-flavor base Baijiu by Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy
HAN Yuncui, LYU Zhiyuan, LIU Yutao, ZHANG Mengmeng, ZHANG Chenxi, LU Chunling, QIU Zhenqing, WANG Junqing
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 272-278;285.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035300
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML    PDF (9984KB) ( 31 )  
To monitor the quality of different distillates in the brewing process of strong-flavor Baijiu online, rapid detection models of eight compounds from strong-flavor base Baijiu in the process of picking were established through Fourier transform mid-infrared spectroscopy combined with partial least square method. The eight compounds include ethanol, ethyl acetate, ethyl butyrate, ethyl caproate, ethyl lactate, acetic acid, caproic acid and butyrate. The determination coefficients R2 of the prediction model of alcohol content, ethyl acetate and ethyl lactate were 0.99, that of ethyl caproate was 0.95, that of ethyl butyrate, acetic acid caproic acid are about 0.90, and that of butyrate was 0.79. The predicted results of infrared spectra on eight compounds had good linear correlation with chemical values, and the wider range of compound content, the more uniform content distribution, the better fitting degree of the model. The temperature difference in different seasons caused the fluctuation of infrared absorption spectrum of base Baijiu, which will reduce the accuracy of model detection. The detection model established by the method of temperature compensation global correction can solve this problem and provide a feasible scheme for realizing automatic online Baijiu picking.
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Simultaneous determination of 36 preservatives in protein drinks and liquid condiments by UPLC-MS/MS
WEI Yutao, WEN Quan, TANG Weiying, HUANG Luyao, YU Xiaoqin, DU Gang, LI Shucai, LI Hang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 279-285.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034884
Abstract ( 32 )   HTML    PDF (7644KB) ( 29 )  
An ultra-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and optimized for the simultaneous determination of 36 preservatives in protein drinks and liquid condiments by the pretreatment method of combining extraction and purification. The samples were purified with saturated sodium chloride solution (adjusting pH to 3 with phosphoric acid) and extracted with acetonitrile-methanol (9∶1, volume ratio) (containing 0.2% formic acid). The analytes were separated on a C18 chromatographic column using gradient elution with methanol-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate as the mobile phase, detected by MS/MS in both positive ion and negative ion mode using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring, and finally quantified by the matrix-matched external standard method. Results showed that good linearity was observed for the 36 compounds with correlation coefficients≥0.999 in the concentration range of 1-250 ng/mL, and the limits of quantitation were between 0.04 mg/kg and 0.2 mg/kg. The average recoveries of blank samples were in the range of 75%-119%, with relative standard deviations of 0.90%-9.8%. The established high-throughput detection method is sensitive, rapid, accurate, and simple, can effectively reduce matrix interference, reduce detection cost, shorten the detection cycle, and greatly improve the qualitative and quantitative detection efficiency of various preservatives.
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Analysis of key volatile flavour compounds in chilli oil by odor activity value combined with gas chromatography-olfactometry
YU Jin, ZENG Yan, BAI Yan, ZHANG Liang
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 286-292.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034875
Abstract ( 44 )   HTML    PDF (1708KB) ( 34 )  
Chilli oil has a unique flavour and a wide range of uses. The volatiles of home-made chilli oil at different oil temperatures (150 ℃, 190 ℃, and 230 ℃) were analyzed by headspace solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography×gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC×GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) in combination with odor activity value (OAV). The 82, 64, and 98 volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME-GC×GC-MS in 150 ℃, 190 ℃, and 230 ℃ chilli oil, respectively. The total contents were 72.00 mg/kg, 87.27 mg/kg, and 120.52 mg/kg, respectively. The aldehyde compounds were the highest in each sample and remained at about 46 mg/kg. The other substances showed significant changes with the increase in temperature. A total of 38 key aroma components were screened by OAV combined with GC-O. The key aroma compounds of three chilli oil were scientifically screened, which could provide a theoretical basis for improving the flavor quality of chilli oil.
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Analysis of flavor characteristics of Fengdu spicy chicken seasoning by electronic nose, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation
TU Dawei, CHEN Xiaohong, HUANG Yongqiang, HU Xia, WANG Shuochao, LIU Wenjun
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 293-301.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034240
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML    PDF (1772KB) ( 34 )  
Seasonings have an important effect on the quality of Fengdu spicy chicken. To evaluate the flavor characteristics of Fengdu spicy chicken seasonings, the numbing and spicy intensity, aroma components, and sensory characteristics were analyzed by HPLC, electronic nose, GC-MS, and sensory evaluation. Results showed that the contents of sanshool and capsaicinoids in Fengdu spicy chicken seasonings from different manufacturers were 0.023-4.053 mg/g and 0.123-0.471 g/kg, respectively. Their intensity of numbing and spicy difference was significant. An electronic nose combined with principal component analysis could be used to quickly distinguish Fengdu spicy chicken seasonings from different manufacturers. A total of 81 volatile components were detected in Fengdu spicy chicken seasoning. The difference in composition and proportion resulted in different flavor of Fengdu spicy chicken products from different manufacturers. 13 main aroma components were screened out by odor activity value (OAV) analysis, including myrcene, linalool, (Z)-2-decenal, D-limonene, and linalyl acetate. The sensory scores of S4, S8, and S9 were significantly higher than those of other samples, and their spicy taste was more coordinated and palatable. On the whole, the numbing and spicy intensity and aroma of Fengdu spicy chicken seasonings from different manufacturers were different. Combined with the results of the numbing and spicy intensity analysis and sensory evaluation, the intensity of numbing (1.512-4.053 mg/g) and spicy (0.184-0.200 g/kg) may be the more suitable range for Fengdu spicy chicken seasoning. The overall flavor of Fengdu spicy chicken seasoning was mainly fatty, floral, and spicy.
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Recent advances on resource utilization of wine wastes
ZHANG Yunwei, BAI Tianhua, WANG Li, SONG Linna, ZHANG Rui, LI Qiqi, MA Wen
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 302-310.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035278
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML    PDF (3090KB) ( 35 )  
Wine processing produces a large amount of waste, which is rich in bioenergy and bioactive substances. In recent years, disposal capacity of wine processing waste has been improving rapidly in our country, but the reuse rate of biological resources is low, and a comprehensive utilization and large-scale production system has not been formed. This paper provides a comprehensive overview on utilization of wine wastes from these four aspects: sources of wine processing wastes, material composition of wastes, industrial application, and graded utilization of waste. This paper aims to turn waste into treasure of wineries and to improve the added value of waste. It will provide a reference for the resource utilization of wine processing waste, and promote the low-carbon and sustainable development of wine industry.
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Application of immunochromatography assay in rapid detection of food allergens
GUO Kaitong, HU Xiaofei, SUN Yaning, XING Yunrui, WANG Chengbin, WU Jiabei, WANG Lin, SONG Qianzhao, YANG Haitao, WANG Yao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 311-317.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034046
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML    PDF (2702KB) ( 34 )  
Food allergy is one of the important public health problems and poses a serious threat to the health of allergic people. To ensure the food safety of allergic people, it is necessary to study the detection method of allergens in food products. In recent years, the rapid detection technology for food allergens has developed rapidly. Among them, the immunochromatographic assay has been widely used for its advantages of high detection efficiency, low cost, and strong specificity. This article described the principle of immunochromatography assay, and systematically summarized the immunochromatographic detection methods of plant-derived allergens (peanuts, soybeans, wheat, and tree nuts allergens) and animal-derived allergens (milk, eggs, crustacean aquatic products, and fish allergens) in food, and prospected its development direction.
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Preparation of food bioactive ingredient nanocapsules by nano spray drying: A review
RAN Huan, XIA Xiaoxia, ZHAO Jichun, LEI Xiaojuan, LI Fuhua, ZENG Kaifang, MING Jian
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 318-325.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033920
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML     PDF (3157KB) ( 34 )  
Functional foods and dietary supplements rich in bioactive ingredients can prevent and alleviate many chronic diseases. However, most of the bioactive ingredients have poor stability. They are easy to decompose and inactivated by light, heat, and oxygen during production, processing, and storage, and react with other ingredients in food. They are easy to degrade after entering the human gastrointestinal tract, showing a low bioavailability. The preparation of microcapsules is considered as a good strategy to improve the stability and bioavailability of bioactive substances. There are many methods to prepare microcapsules, among which the nano spray drying method is widely concerned because of its small particle size, good stability, and easier penetration into target cells. Therefore, this paper introduced the basic principle of nano spray drying, the differences between nano spray drying and traditional spray drying, and the application effects of various bioactive components of nano microcapsules prepared. Finally, this paper summarized the advantages of nano microcapsules and proposed the limitations and research directions of nano spray drying.
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Research progress on functional improvement of gellan gum food packaging film
ZHANG Runfeng, XUE Siya, WANG Qing, CHEN Shan
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 326-333.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034724
Abstract ( 40 )   HTML    PDF (1606KB) ( 40 )  
The gellan gum (GG) base film has excellent characteristics and the advantages of biodegradability, which shows great potential in replacing petroleum-based plastics in food packaging. Given the defects in the mechanical properties, water resistance, and function of GG film in the application of food packaging, the improvement measures and function-strengthening strategies were reviewed, including the improvement of the properties of polymer blends, the function-strengthening of the incorporation of photogenic surfactants, antimicrobial peptides, and granular substances. Finally, the summary and outlook were made to provide a valuable reference for the research of GG film and further promote its development in food packaging.
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Promoting effect of plant polyphenols synergized with modified atmosphere packaging on meat preservation
ZHANG Yiyi, NAN Yanming, ZHANG Huiwang, SONG Wei, WANG Lingling, YAN Yuzhen, WANG Zichao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 334-340.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.033808
Abstract ( 44 )   HTML    PDF (1358KB) ( 35 )  
Meat is rich in amino acids, proteins, and fats, and is one of the most important foods for human beings. Fresh meat is the main product of the meat supply; however, it is prone to degradation or oxidation due to the presence of microorganisms and endogenous enzymes, resulting in spoilage and deterioration and leading to the loss of edible and commercial values. Plant polyphenols synergized with modified atmosphere packaging are natural and safe, and can effectively improve the quality of meat and prolong its shelf life. At present, it has been used as a new type of processing and packaging technology for meat preservation. This paper summarized the applications of plant polyphenols synergized with modified atmosphere packaging in meat preservation, aiming to provide a reliable and effective fresh meat preservation technology for the food industry.
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Research progress and analysis of Cordyceps chanhua
ZHOU Sijing, QIAO Yuchen, LIU Guijun, CHEN Wei, WANG Ping, SONG Meifang, WANG Chengtao
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 341-350.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034175
Abstract ( 39 )   HTML    PDF (2653KB) ( 30 )  
Chanhua (Cordyceps chanhua), one of the famous Cordyceps fungi, has a long history of edible and medicinal use in China. It exhibits a high nutritional value and various medicinal properties, such as immunomodulation-related activity, anti-tumor effect, improving renal function, and so on. In this review, the progress of the chemical composition, artificial cultivation, biological functional activities, and the current omics in Cordyceps chanhua were summarized, as well as the future prospects of C. chanhua were briefly predicted, aiming to provide a reference for the future application of C. chanhua in food, medicine, health products, cosmetics, and other fields.
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Research progress of Pleurotus ostreatus in fields of medicine, chemical industry, and environmental protection
LI Kunpeng, GUO Yangzi, WANG Junming, WANG Chenying, REN Xidong
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 351-358.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.034495
Abstract ( 41 )   HTML    PDF (2046KB) ( 37 )  
Pleurotus ostreatus is a micromycete with many outstanding advantages, which has been widely concerned by researchers and has been applied in medicine, food, the chemical industry, environmental protection, and other fields. The main reason is that P. ostreatus is rich in polysaccharides, protein, lipids, vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients, and some nutrients in P. ostreatus also have the antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic effects, immune regulation, and other activities, as well as the characteristics of degrading cellulose, absorbing harmful pollutants in its growth environment, and enriching heavy metal ions. At present, the research of P. ostreatus is mainly focused on pharmaceutical medicine, such as the development of antioxidant drugs, antibacterial drugs, anti-inflammatory drugs, hypoglycemic drugs, immunomodulators, and other drugs, chemical industry, such as the development of cosmetics, flexible materials, pesticides, etc, and environmental protection, such as the utilization of lignocellulose and the restoration of soil and water systems. In this paper, the latest research progress of the nutrient composition and utilization of P. ostreatus in the fields of medicine, chemical industry, and environmental protection was reviewed, providing a reference for the development and utilization of P. ostreatus in various fields. In the future, it is necessary to explore the application in other fields based on the mushroom itself and its growth characteristics while developing and utilizing the activity of the nutrient components of P. ostreatus.
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Research progress in garlic processing wastewater treatment
ZHANG Chengming, LIU Mingyuan, WU Jiangtao, ZHANG Li, WEI Feng, GENG Yawen, LI Yanfei, DONG Baocheng, LI Shizhong, XUE Zhongcai
Food and Fermentation Industries. 2024, 50 (1): 359-364.   DOI: 10.13995/j.cnki.11-1802/ts.035714
Abstract ( 42 )   HTML    PDF (1502KB) ( 40 )  
China is the largest garlic producer and exporter in the world, and garlic chips is one of the most important export products. More than 20 tons of garlic processing wastewater (GPW) would be generated for producing 1 ton of garlic chips. The strong ant bactericidal effect of GPW made it difficult to be treated with biological process. The characteristics and components of GPW, the antibacterial mechanism of allicin, the GPW treatment processes of biological method, membrane separation, and advanced oxidation as well were evaluated and summarized to provide a reference for improving the existing GPW treatment technology.
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